Everything Coming Out of Nothing vs. A Finite, Open and Contingent Universe

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Stephen Hawking, present occupant of the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge University, is today one of the best known theoretical cosmologists in the world. His important contributions, in collaboration ...
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A Finite, Open and Contingent Universe

Pp. 90-96 (7)

Julio A. Gonzalo


According to today’s Cosmology the universe has a finite mass, a finite (but growing) “age”, and a finite (but growing) space-time extension. The product of Ho (Hubble’s parameter) by to (the present “age” of the universe) is at the present epoch Hotto = 0.942 ± 0.065, therefore more than 2/3 implying an open universe (k<0). A finite, open universe is contingent (it could have been otherwise) and therefore created. Quotes of Planck and Einstein on the subject are given.


Cosmic finiteness, cosmic mass, cosmic “age”, cosmic extension, observational evidence for an open (k<0) universe, Plank’s and Einstein’s views on the subject.


Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid