The clinical impact of bone tissue engineering depends upon creation of vascular networks, which are able to
provide sufficient blood supply in the early post-transplanted period. Recently, a lot of related researches have been conducted,
including the growth factors from cells, scaffolds and surgical approaches that could guide the microvessel formation.
In addition, biodegradable and functional biomaterials have been designed to generate tissue constructs. In this
review, five aspects, such as using growth factors to the blood vessels formation, transplanting the EPCs and the scaffolds
complexes, microsurgical technique application, genetic engineering technology and enhancing angiogenesis in low negative
pressure, are discussed. The most promising research points may include the adhesion mechanism between cells and
functional scaffolds and the accelerated process of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, etc., which were described in the
conclusion and perspectives part.
Keywords: The cells, functional scaffolds, surgical approaches, growth factors, vasculogenesis, vascularized bone tissue engineering, unctional scaffolds, plasmid, hypoxia, angiogenesis, morphogenesis, lymphatic vessels, osteogenic.
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