Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women worldwide in both developed and developing countries.
Over the years we see an explosion of treatments in the forms of surgical, biological, hormonal, radiation, and
chemo therapies for breast cancer patients. Recent advances in tissue engineering herald a new approach to fight breast
cancer. This review will begin with an introduction on breast cancer oncology and its pharmacotherapeutic issues, followed
by an overview of the current landscape of breast cancer treatments, and then the description of the applications of
tissue engineering in breast cancer treatment. Of particular interest is the development of tumor 3D culture models in
breast cancer research as a platform for pharmacotherapy. Besides being important in shedding light on breast cancer
mechanisms of tumorigenesis, metastasis, microenvironment, signaling pathways, and cancer treatment, in vitro 3D cell
model can be used as an assessment tool in anti-breast cancer drug therapy. A part of this review will focus on some of the
key constituents of 3D cell model, including the consideration of cell source, biomaterial biocompatibility, the generation
of crucial microenvironmental cues, the optimal design of constructs and scaffold for the cells. Finally, this review closes
with a brief discussion on the various perfusion configurations currently used for 3D cell culturing systems. Tissue engineering
provides a promising mean to further understand breast cancer and most importantly to derive potentially effective
treatments for this deadly disease.
Keywords: 3D tumor culture model, breast cancer, pharmacotherapy, tumorigenesis, microenvironmental, pathophysiological, pathophysiological, serine/threonine kinase 11, chemotherapy, trinucleotide.
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