ISSN (Print): 2211-7385
ISSN (Online): 2211-7393
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ISSN (Print): 2211-7385
ISSN (Online): 2211-7393
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Ijeoma F. Uchegbu Department of Pharmaceutics, University of London London UK
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Construction and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive drug delivery System based on the Nnoporous Silica
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Recent Advances in Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology Based Pharmaceuticals
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Biogenic nanoparticles for biomedical application
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Has contributed: Nanotechnology Composites and Visual Health Patient’s Quality of Life
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1 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
Microfluidics is a recent advance in formulation science that is a superior method for the synthesis of uniform
nanoparticles for drug delivery and related applications where colloidal systems are utilized. Using microfluidics,
small volumes of liquid reagents are rapidly mixed in microchannels in a highly controlled manner to form tunable
nanomedicines for tailored drug delivery. The reproducibility of the technique is a desirable feature to meet the demands
of the pharmaceutical regulatory requirements. Commercially available microfluidics systems are now available
to enable production at relevant scales for manufacturing applications. Coupling the microfluidics systems to
advanced analytical methods such as microscopy, spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction enables enhanced
understanding of particle formation mechanisms and structure.
This special thematic issue of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology highlights recent state-of-the-art advances in the
utilization of microfluidics for the design of nanomedicines. Particle formation and in situ particle functionalization
are a focus, with studies on polymer and lipid-based particles being a feature. This special issue also illustrates the
breadth of approaches and applications that are possible with this microfluidics technology. The contributions in
this special issue include a review by Streck and Hong et al.  that covers the foundations of the types of microfluidics
mixers used in the pharmaceutical context, key considerations for the production of both lipid and polymer
systems and outlines process-related variables that influence nanoparticle properties. The important feature of
batch-to-batch consistency was investigated by Poller et al.  for PLGA nanoparticles, with the addition of albumin
to the aqueous phase being identified as a strategy to assist in tuning nanoparticle physicochemical properties.
Solid lipid nanoparticles are the focus of an article by Anderluzzi et al.  that draws on the considerable experience
in the Perrie lab for using microfluidics to produce lipid nanomedicines in a high-throughput and scalable process.
The use of microfluidics to produce stimuli-responsive nano drug delivery systems is highlighted in the paper
by Hong et al.  who have applied the technique to the fabrication of cubosomes. Analysis using small angle Xray
scattering revealed that the internal structure of the cubosomes was influenced by the processing conditions. The
use of plant extracts for their therapeutic effect is becoming increasingly interesting in human medicine. Vu et al.
 present research formulating the antioxidant compound rutin into PLGA nanoparticles as a strategy to improve
the low oral bioavailability. In this paper, the authors compared a traditional bulk production method with microfluidics
and conclude that microfluidics results in more uniform nanoparticles with higher entrapment of rutin compared
to a bulk method.
The Editors extend their gratitude to the authors for their interest and contributions to this timely special theme
issue. We also thank the reviewers for their time and expertise for provide an appraisal of the manuscripts and their
comments to help improve the quality of the submissions.
It is hoped that this special theme issue on Microfluidics in nanomedicine may stimulate new endeavours in this
area and encourages adoption of this technique as a superior production method to synthesise nanomedicines.
The era of application of smart therapeutic systems employing targeted drug delivery strategies for effective
treatment of diseases was started almost several decades. Several research efforts have been undertaken
with time in this area for developing the newer formulation systems and devices. Despite the advantages
of the new developing drugs, the benefits of adopting the modified treatment strategies are highly
promising. Among these, the use of bioinspired drug delivery systems acclaimed with biodegradable
and biocompatible properties has gained increasing acceptance. The current editorial delivers an insight
into a series of reviews compiled befitting the title of the special issue. In this thematic issue, a compilation
of five review articles is presented focusing on general aspects of bio-inspired nanosystems in therapeutics
and disease treatment. This special issue has provided a comprehensive perspective on the concept
of bio-inspired smart drug delivery carriers include scheming and developing biocompatible nanomaterials
which can be loaded with cargo for specific drug delivery application. Such carriers are used for versatile
applications in delivering drugs and pharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications, biological markers and
contrast agents for imaging applications, genes and nucleic acids for gene therapy applications. Some instances
of the bio-inspired nanocarriers include formulations prepared from bio-nanocomposite materials
such as cellulose, chitosan, starch, polylactic acid, polyhydroxyalkanoates, etc. With the dimensional size
range between 0.1-100 nm, the polymeric nanocomposites have been heavily explored in cancer research,
immunomodulation, tissue engineering, stem cell therapy, cellular and molecular treatment. Besides these,
a series of modifications in the preparations of such nanocarriers have been tried . In this regard, the
bio-inspired metallic nanoparticles have been proved useful in the delivery of drugs to the brain for the
treatment of seizure, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Silica-based nanocomposites are
useful in tissue engineering, imaging, therapeutic and disease-related diagnostic applications . Hydroxyapatite
nanocomposites and rosette nanotubes have been found useful as scaffolds in nucleic acid engineering
applications. Graphene-based nanocomposites are also useful in photodynamic therapy against
cancer treatment and tissue engineering applications. Recently, there are derivatized systems such as polymeric
nanocomposites loaded with nanoparticles were reported in the literature with innovative applications
in gene delivery . Modified polymers composed of cartilages and muscles are useful in tissue engineering
applications to produce the mechanically stiff interpenetrating network to facilitate the growth
of bone mass. Moreover, the spatially controlled hydrogel nanocomposites have been designed for controlling
cellular microenvironments for mimicking tissue complexity. The microarrays of bioadhesive
nanocomposite microgels have been designed with tunable physical and chemical properties to obtain the
modular sizes and tailored adhesive biomolecule compositions .
Overall, these nano devices reported in the literature also have variegated applications as scaffolds with
additional advantage of drug delivery to the local tissues. These bio-inspired nanocarriers are capable of
carrying bioactive molecules to the target sites based on their ability to act in response to the environmental
stimuli available in living cells and/or human body. Besides, the bio-inspired nanosystems are constituted
of lipids, polymers, and biomaterials, thus utilize endogenous responsiveness sensors for targeted
drug delivery application. Moreover, external stimuli such as heat, light, magnetic or electric field and ultrasounds,
as well as endogenous ones, such as temperature change, pH variations, redox potential and
ionic strength differences can distress the responsiveness of a bio-inspired smart nano-system for drug delivery
. The content of this thematic issue also highlights the key opportunities and challenges in the
development of bio-inspired smart nanocarriers for therapeutic management . Beyond the literature reports,
the articles of this thematic issue has incorporated future prospects in the field useful to the readers.
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