Cellular in vivo imaging can reveal the induction, progression and resolution of nervous system pathology in real-time. In this
review, we summarize recent research in the field to illustrate how in vivo imaging has enhanced our understanding of a variety of neurological
conditions caused by trauma, degeneration, ischemia or inflammation. Finally, we look ahead and discuss how novel biosensors
might help us to follow not only the cellular but also the molecular pathogenesis of neurological diseases in vivo.
Keywords: In vivo imaging, multi-photon microscopy, neurodegeneration, neurotrauma, ischemia, neuroinflammation, nervous system, biosensors, cerebral cortex, reactive oxygen species.
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