Studies have demonstrated that infection with HIV-1 (subtypes) clades might differentially contribute to HIV-
1-associated neuro cognitive disorder (HAND). Substance abuse and illicit drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine
(METH) are also known to play a role in neuronal impairments. Neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) and arachidonic acid
(AA) metabolites are regulators of central nervous system (CNS) functions. These neurotoxins are dysregulated during
HIV infection, and substance abuse exacerbates immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to dementia and
neurocognitive impairments. Studies have demonstrated an association between HIV infection and substance abuse in
terms of viral replication and disease progression in Neuro-AIDS. In this review, we briefly discuss the effect of cocaine
and METH, and differential role of HIV-1 B and C induced indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) and cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) mediated induction of neurotoxin QUIN and AA metabolites that implicate neuronal dysfunctions.
Keywords: HIV-1 clade B and C, cocaine, methamphatamine, dementia and neurocognitive, QUIN, HAND, COX-2, IDO, AA.
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