Ectopic Lymphoid Neogenesis and Lymphoid Chemokines in Sjogren’s Syndrome: At the Interplay between Chronic Inflammation, Autoimmunity and Lymphomagenesis

Author(s): Michele Bombardieri, Costantino Pitzalis

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 13 , Issue 10 , 2012


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Abstract:

It has long been demonstrated that a subset of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) develop ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) in the salivary glands (SG). These structures are characterised by periductal clusters of T and B lymphocytes, development of high endothelial venules and differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) networks. Evidence in patients with and animal models of SS demonstrated that the formation and maintenance of ELS in the SG is critically dependent on the ectopic expression of lymphotoxins (LT) and lymphoid chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL12. Several cell types, including resident epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells as well as different subsets of infiltrating immune cells, have been shown to be capable of producing some of these factors during chronic inflammation in SS. In this review we focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the formation of ELS in SS SG, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines. In addition, we summarise accumulating data in support of the notion that ELS in SS represent functional niches whereby autoreactive B cells undergo affinity maturation, clonal selection and differentiation into autoantibody producing cells, thus contributing to autoimmunity over and above secondary lymphoid organs. Furthermore, we review the emerging role of ELS and lymphoid chemokines in driving extranodal B cell lymphomagenesis in SS and we focus on recent evidence suggesting that ELS identify subsets of SS patients at increased risk of developing systemic manifestations and lymphoma.

Keywords: Sjogren’s syndrome, lymphoid chemokines, ectopic lymphoid structures, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, lymphomagenesis, autoantibodies, salivary glands (SG), lymphotoxins (LT), immune cells, chronic inflammation, autoreactive B cells, lymphoid organs, systemic manifestations and lymphoma, histopathological hallmark.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 10
Year: 2012
Published on: 23 July, 2012
Page: [1989 - 1996]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/138920112802273209
Price: $65

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