Aptamers, or nucleic acid ligands, have gained clinical interest over the past 20 years due to their unique characteristics,
which are a combination of the best facets of small molecules and antibodies. The high binding affinity and
specificity of aptamers allows for isolation of an artificial ligand for theoretically any therapeutic target of interest.
Chemical manipulations of aptamers also allow for fine-tuning of their bioavailability, and antidote control greatly expands
their clinical use. Here we review the various methods of antidote control of aptamer therapeutics – matched oligonucleotide
antidotes and universal antidotes. We also describe the development, recent progress, and potential future
therapeutic applications of these types of aptamer-antidote pairs.
Keywords: Anticoagulant, antidote, antiplatelet, aptamer, oligonucleotide antidote, therapeutic, universal antidote, nucleic acid ligands, small molecules, antibodies, aptamer-antidote pairs, viral RNA, oligonucleotides, therapeutic target, clinical interest.
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