The management of spontaneous pneumothorax in the non-ventilated patient is determined by whether or not
there is marked underlying lung pathology (secondary) or not (primary). Primary pneumothorax is generally managed
initially by simple tube drainage, although the success of operative approaches suggests that earlier intervention may be
beneficial. In contrast, patients with severe underlying lung disease have both increased operative risk, as well as failure
of both operative and non-operative management. In either setting, early surgical consultation is ideal and particularly in
the setting of secondary pneumothorax a multi-modality approach is optimal.
Keywords: Pleurodesis, pneumothorax, secondary, spontaneous, thoracoscopy, VATS, epidemiology, pathophysiology, pleural space, emphysema.
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