Result: The results obtained show that for the Beidou B1 signal, the sea surface is considered rough for most sea surface states and incident angles. For smooth sea surfaces, the Beidou B1 reflected signals are mainly left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) waves, but right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) waves dominate when the incident angles are larger than the Brewster angle. The reflected loss is between -2dB to -3.4dB. In rough sea surfaces, the signal propagation is dominated by diffuse reflection. The reflection loss decreases with the incident angle and there is a fluctuation when the incident angle is around 49 degrees. The specular reflection signal has a significant amplitude when the angle of incidence is large. RHCP waves are the main component of the reflected signals, and the reflection loss is relative small which can be employed for polarization diversity or marine remote sensing.

Conclusion: polarization diversity is only useful with good sea conditions, and the corresponding gain decreases with the deterioration of the sea surface conditions. ]]>

Results: Even the variations in voltage and frequency will be controlled with this novel approach. A simulation model of the 300KW solar PV array and a 2MW DFIG system is developed using MATLab/Simulink environment.

Conclusion: Solar and wind energy sources incorporate Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) through their control algorithms resulting in the add on 30-80 KW of solar power for rotor injection compared added to the existing system in order to reduce the power rating of the convertors and power consumption from the grid.]]>

Method: In this paper, combining a fixed-point 256-point FFT algorithm and taking STM32 as the core microcontroller, the hardware circuit and software program are designed respectively. The hardware circuit is tested and analyzed in practice. Among them, the hardware circuit mainly includes the main circuit design, STM32 control circuit design, EMI and second-order RC filter circuit design, sampling circuit design, signal conditioning circuit design. The software program mainly includes the main program, AD conversion subroutine, voltage and current acquisition subroutine, LCD display subroutine and twirl factor array. FFT algorithm is achieved by the table look-up method.

Results: Finally, the hardware circuit is built and the software program is debugged to test the designed device. The experimental results show that the designed power factor instrument meets the task requirements under the different types of loads.

Conclusion: After processing and analyzing the measurement results, as can as we know: Under the pure resistive load, the maximal relative error of electrical parameters is 4.49%. Under the resistive inductive load, the maximal relative error of electrical parameters is 2.86%. Both meet the design requirements. ]]>

Results: The on-line frequency response analysis method is still immature, and the vibration detection method is still in the theoretical research stage. Conclusion: The locus method provides a new direction for on-line detection of transformer winding deformation faults, which has certain application prospects and practical engineering value. ]]>

Results: Finally, calculate the value k. By using the data fitting, the relative function of k and d can be got, that is the fault location function.

Conclusion: After an exhaustive evaluation process considering diﬀerent fault locations, fault resistances, and noise on the unipolar DC transmission system, four-machine two-area AC/DC parallel system, and an actual complex grid, the method presented here showed a very accurate and robust behavior. ]]>

Results: The algorithm on the cloud can read this sensor data and compute the necessary Pulse Width Modulation [PWM] signals required to control the brightness of a dimmable LED luminaire. The system also takes into consideration the zone-wise occupancy in the room while computing the PWM values to be sent to the luminaires.

Conclusion: The use of the concept of open platform sensors and actuators is the significance of the work.]]>

Results: In the last two decades, various OTA structures have been reported with linear voltage-to-current conversion. Some researchers used attenuation by means of different circuit approaches to linearize the OTA or some used cancellation of nonlinearity term by using different circuit implementation techniques. Researchers used some other methods also to linearize the OTA viz source degeneration, square root technique and mobility compensation.

Conclusion: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief survey on various popular linearization techniques reported in the past. ]]>

Methods: This simple design uses lesser number of transistors to obtain smaller estimated layout area of 0.748mm2 and low power of 496.12μW, when operated at 10 GHz frequency at a power supply of 1.8V in 90nm CMOS technology. The simulation reads a phase noise and output noise of -113.142dBc/Hz and -180.712dB at 1MHz offset. The circuit not only runs at a frequency as high as 40GHz, but also compatible to be operated at a power supply of as small as 0.9V.

Results: Process Variation analysis is performed to test the robustness of the proposed circuit at all process corners through Monte Carlo simulation.

Conclusion: Finally, the design is also validated at lower process nodes like 28nm UMC. ]]>

Methods: Novel representations of the lower bound on SPSC and SOP are deduced over independent κ-μ shadowed model. we adopt the method of moment matching to deal with infinite series.

Results: Through theoretical simulation and statistical simulation, the validity of our analysis is verified. We also get the curves for SOP and SPSC when the parameters of the channel change.

Conclusion: Under the condition of larger P, large , large , large and small can improve the secrecy performance on independent κ-μ shadowed network. ]]>

Conclusion: It is found that QoS aware protocols are employed specifically for critical applications. If we consider radiation imparted from the sensors and tissue protection of the human body, the thermal aware routing protocol is the solution. Another important conclusion of this paper is that the various protocols do not provide an optimal solution for selecting the forward node during routing and this solution primarily depends on the residual energy of the nodes and distance of the node from the sink. A study of protocols developed from 2004 onwards till date shows that implementation of WBAN using integration of IoT, EoT, and fog computing has been the emerging topic of research in recent years.]]>

Results: The theoretical analysis, design and testing of piezoelectric driven MEMS scanning microscopes are carried out.

Conclusion: Through related experiments, it is verified that the maximum scanning range and the precision index of angle measurement meet the requirements of the index.]]>

Results: Moreover, it results in reducing error in the learning process of ANN. Disjoint partition proves to be the most accurate Bagging method and combining outputs of this method by taking mean improves the overall performance.

Conclusion: This method of combining several predictors known as Ensemble Artificial Neural Network (EANN) outperform the ANN and Bagging method by further increasing the generalization ability and STLF accuracy.]]>

Methods: Based on the phased-mission feature in behavior and the redundancy design in structure, the mathematical model of tank-to-engine fuel feed system (T-EFFS) is obtained. Both damage modes arising frequently in the given type system are tracked, one is fuel feed pump seal damage due to fatigue, and the other is vane damage due to corrosion. Then multiple degradation T-EFFS model is established to simulate system outlet fuel pressure under different damage modes. And morphological spectrum decrement index is used to describe the system damage status.

Results: The results show that T-EFFS model can describe the phased-mission behavior of the system, and meet the requirement of the fuel flow rate for entire mission profile. Then fuel pressure dropping of T-EFFS with cumulative effect of vane damage and crack growth under different behavior modes are simulated along its life span.

Conclusion: The work is expected to provide model and data support for the subsequent investigate. It can be used to fit the system health background curve, predict the system performance degradation trend at some given life points, further evaluate the corresponding remaining useful life. ]]>

Objective: Transfer energy in the specified direction and increase transmission power.

Method: A novel three-coil transmitting structure is proposed, which can transmit energy to a specified single or multiple space regions, and enhance the magnetic field strength in a single direction by magnetic field vector synthesis to improve the transmission power.

Results: Combined with Mathcad numerical calculation and Maxwell simulation analysis, the experimental platform was built and the magnetic focusing of the proposed novel structure was experimentally verified.

Conclusion: The novel emission structure can effectively perform directional energy transmission and increase the transmission power by 2~3 times in a single direction at the cost of 10%~15% efficiency loss.]]>

Method: The hydrogen storage part and the supercapacitor (SC) are used as backup power and power adjustment units to ensure power supply reliability and compensate for the shortcomings of wind and solar energy intermittent. The power coordination strategy assigns power reference control and the power controller follows the reference value (ie, hierarchical control). The electrolysis cell (EL) and the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) perform phased power control (ie, minimum power, rated power, maximum power). The SC is divided into two operating modes, which are the same or opposite to the EL/PEMFC output power direction.

Results: To reduce the wait time of the SC, the SC is free to switch between the two modes by setting the recovery voltage. The SC is mainly aimed at wind speed and load abrupt changes, and the hydrogen storage part is designed to solve the short-term energy shortage and surplus.

Conclusion: In the 3-machine 9-bus system, the actual wind power, irradiance and temperature data of North China are used for verification. The method can effectively balance the wind wave fluctuation power, prolong the life of the EL, fully utilize the space of the SC, and reduce the cost.]]>

Results: At last, one VDTA Sallen-Key filter is received. It employs single compact VDTA and two grounded capacitors.

Conclusion: A Butterworth VDTA second-order frequency filter based on Sallen-Key topology with fo=100kHz, HLP=-HBP=1, is designed.]]>

Conclusion: The present study envisages helping ECG and HRV data analyses while selecting the AI techniques for classification purpose according to data.]]>

Result: Considering different operational scenarios and multiple levels of contingencies (up to N-3), Fast Decoupled Power Flow (FDPF) have been used for contingency replications.

Conclusion: The developed technique applied to IEEE 14-bus and 57-bus standard test system for steady-state security evaluation. The obtained results ensure the robustness and effectiveness of the established procedure in the assessment of the system security irrespective of the network size or operating conditions.]]>

Method: Firstly, the type of nonlinear curve with "small error reduction, large error saturation" is introduced to design a nonlinear integral speed controller with global robustness. Secondly, the gain rate time-varying reaching law is introduced to reduce "chattering". Finally, using a symbolic tangent function instead of a sign function in designing a sliding mode observer reduces fluctuations in load observations.

Results: Finally, the correctness and effectiveness of the control method are proved by simulation.

Conclusion: the results of simulation show that the nonlinear integral sliding mode controller based on gain time-varying reaching law is shown to have good global robustness and dynamic performance. ]]>

Methods: Several effective cost based consequences can be achieved by proposed technique like: DG units installation and operation costs, D-Statcom installation cost, capacitor costs, cost of purchased energy from the transmission network, active and reactive power losses cost, line upgrade cost and distribution system reconfiguration cost.

Result: In addition, energy not- supplied as a vital reliability index incorporated in the cost function aims to improve efficiently network’s reliability.

Conclusion: IEEE 33 bus radial distribution system is used here to check the practicability of the proposed scheme. ]]>

Method: In order to improve the clustering accuracy, this paper proposes a new clustering method based on the user's electrical behavior. Starting with the analysis of user load characteristics, the user electricity data samples are constructed. The daily load characteristic curve is extracted through improved extreme learning machine clustering algorithm and effective index criteria. And clustering analysis is carried out for different users from industrial areas, commercial areas and residential areas. The improved extreme learning machine algorithm, also called Unsupervised Extreme Learning Machine (US-ELM), is an extension and improvement of the original Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), which realizes the unsupervised clustering task on the basis of the original ELM.

Result: We experimented with 4 different data sets and compared them with other commonly used clustering algorithms by MATLAB programming. The experimental results show that the US-ELM algorithm has higher accuracy in processing power data.

Conclusion: The unsupervised ELM algorithm can greatly reduce the time consumption and improve the effectiveness of clustering.]]>

Result: Under the load mutation condition, the power grid voltage sensorless control of three-phase VSR is achieved, the system response characteristics are analyzed. From the simulation experimental results, it can be seen that the unbalanced power grid voltage can be quickly tracked, and the sinusoidal control of the power grid side current can be achieved. In addition, the control system has a series of advantages, such as a faster dynamic response speed, a stronger robustness and a smaller DC side voltage ripple.

Conclusion: The proposed unbalanced power grid voltage sensorless control strategy of three-phase VSR is effective. ]]>

Results: Investigations shown that conventional converter output characteristics were virtually constant from 10% to 60% duty cycle when different radiated MOSFETs used in the converter. The electrical characteristics started to fluctuate at 60% duty cycle and onwards, while the remodeled converter circuit was less distorted when increasing the radiation dose.

Conclusion: Also, it was concluded that remodeled converter shows the improved device performance and efficiency in terms of abrupt changes of high level dose in power MOSFET. ]]>

Result: The corresponding finite horizon optimal controller is proved to render the closed-loop system exponentially stable. And the corresponding infinite horizon optimal controller is proved to render the closed-loop system exponentially stable when the open-loop system is either controllable or stabilizable. Finally two examples are used to verify the theory results of this paper.]]>

Results: Total Harmonic Distortion(THD) is computed for proposed MLI for different types of loads in simulation environment as well as in the developed hardware prototype. Comparison between the proposed MLI and recent topologies demonstrate the advantageous features.

Conclusion: The simulation and hardware results confirm the suitability of the proposed seven level MLI as the total component count and the requirement of DC sources reduces considerably.]]>

Methods: The fuzzy logic approach is used to improve the network lifetime and throughput. The proposed approach gave better results in comparison to existing approaches of Low Energy Fuzzy Based Unequal Clustering Multi-hop Architecture (LEFUCMA) and Low Energy Adaptive Unequal Clustering Using Fuzzy C-Means (LAUCF).

Result: The proposed approach is 11.39 % better in terms of network lifetime in comparison to LEFUCMA and 34.27 % in terms of network lifetime in comparison to LAUCF.

Conclusion: The proposed approach is 34.29 % better in terms of network throughput as a comparison of LEFUCMA and 112.85 % in terms of network throughput in comparison to LAUCF]]>

Methods: The prime consideration is to know that how localization affects the network lifetime and how these algorithms work for increasing the lifetime of a network in a severe.

Results: This paper also aims for finding the position of the node with respect to range based, anchor based and distributed localization techniques for harsh environments. Additionally this paper also features the concern that occurs with these localization techniques.

Conclusion: The technique that gives highly accurate location coordinates and having less hardware cost is distributed RSSI based localization algorithm. ]]>

Results: Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves a reduction of the encoding time of the latest HEVC encoder by 16.21% on average without incurring any noticeable compromise on its compression efficiency. The algorithm also reduces the number of transform operations by 44.98% on average.

Conclusion: In this paper, a novel fast TU size selection scheme for HEVC is proposed. The proposed technique outperforms both the latest HEVC reference software, HM 16.0, as well as other state-of-the-art techniques in terms of time-complexity. The compression performance of the proposed technique is comparable to that of HM 16.0. ]]>

Results: We find that our tr iple soft-start control strategy can be applied to large-capacity motors, as this strategy results in a pure sine wave output voltage and current, and maintains balance in the three-phase voltage during startup.]]>

Result: The obtained inverse model of the magnetic suspension system is independent of the flux-linkage orientation mode of torque system, and thus the flexibility of the independent control for the torque system and magnetic suspension system is increased. The simulation results have shown that the system has good static- and dynamic-decoupling control performance.

Conclusion: The proposed independent inverse system decoupling control strategy is effective and feasible. ]]>

Method: The basic idea of the paper is to control the dc-link voltage from the generation side by regulating the power generated by RES as per load demand using minimum components. The underline principle is the relative lower time constant of solar panel and battery system in comparison to a wind turbine.

Result: The experimental results on the proposed system shows that the SECS supports the WECS at higher wind turbulence and low wind conditions.

Conclusion: This unique feature of the proposed system enables a WECS supported by a small rated SECS to attain high power reliability and thus, suitable for application such as remote area electrification. ]]>

Results: The effectiveness and robustness of the developed approach are illustrated by numerical simulations.

Conclusion: The raised control scheme is a useful tool for enhancing the performance of the chaotic PMSM system with external disturbances, constrained output and parameter perturbations. ]]>

Results: The comparative results of the proposed and existing mathematical models shows that proposed algorithm outperforms with the various performance parameters.

Conclusion: Finally, it is concluded that network congestion is reduced marginally in the overall performance of the network. ]]>

Result: According to the electricity price mechanism of Shanxi Province, the paper proposes a multi- target charging and discharging optimization for EVs based on the evolution of EV State Of Charge (SOC) using the Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO).

Conclusion: Compared with the disordered charging mode, the method proposed in this paper can simultaneously reduce the network loss of the distribution network and the cost of EV users.]]>

Result: PSCAD/ EMTDC Software-Simulation based study is carried out to analyze the behavior of UHV transmission line with TCSC. The effect of improvement in power transfer capability, with and without use of TCSC scheme; through Constant- Current mode, closed loop control; has been investigated for a healthy line and a faulty line.

Conclusion: The paper will prove a milestone for academicians, researchers, and design engineers in the field of Power Electronics and Power Systems. ]]>

Result: Experiments show that it is feasible to implement Cloud Computing Alliance among cloud computing platforms through Mobile Agent under the existing technical conditions. ]]>

**BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER:**

It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.]]>

Objective: Provide an approach based on wireless sensor network (WSN) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to establish the behaviours monitoring system for the elderly.

Method: A behaviour monitoring system based on wireless sensor network and neural network is proposed in this paper, according to the behaviour characteristics of the elderly. The system collects real-time behaviour data of the elderly by wearing a bracelet with acceleration sensors wore on their hands. And then a behaviour recognition model of the elderly is established through the MLP and the collected behaviour data. The established behaviour recognition model is used to classify and identify the five typical behaviour characteristics of the elderly, such as walking, sitting, lying, standing and tumbling. At the same time, the location information of the elderly is estimated by the centroid localization technology based on received signal strength indication (RSSI) ranging.

Results: The experiment results show that the designed system can timely acquire the behaviour characteristic parameters of the elderly, and it can accurately identify the five typical behaviours with a 100% recognition accuracy rate. And also it can timely give the warning of the abnormal behaviours of the elderly such as tumbling or walking out of the active area.

Conclusion: The proposed system in this paper can accurately identify the abnormal behaviours of elderly and timely inform the guardians. The proposed monitoring method can effectively reduce the hurt to elderly, and can improve the work efficiency of guardians. And it has its theoretical and practical value. ]]>

Results: The trade-off problem between the dynamic performance and robustness which exists in one-degree-of-freedom (1DOF) control can be dealt with by the application of 2DOF control theory. Then, through !∞ control theory, the design of robust position controller can be translated to !∞ robust standard design problem. Moreover, the control system with robust controller has been proved to be stable.

Conclusion: Further simulation results demonstrate that compared with the conventional PID control, the designed control system has better robustness and attenuation to the disturbance of load impact.]]>

Method: Several TSOs have updated their grid codes in accordance with the increasing wind energy penetration. We have made an effort to present a comparison between different integration requirements specified by different grid codes. The outcomes presented will certainly be beneficial to the countries, which are in process of enacting their own grid code.

Result: We have reviewed different grid codes in terms of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) requirement, operating voltage and frequency range, active power control (frequency regulation) and reactive power support (voltage regulation).

Conclusion: The present study envisages helping wind turbine manufacturers and WPP developers, as it would provide them a clear insight into the regulations imposed on WPPs as included/updated in different grid codes.]]>

Result: A simulation model is established on the PSCAD/EMTDC and the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed operation scenarios and control strategy.]]>

Results: This paper proposes and implements the LO ranking and retrieval algorithm based on the Tilted Time window and the Support Vector Machine, which uses the merit of both methods. The proposed model is implemented for the NCBI dataset and MAT Lab.

Conclusion: The experiments have been carried out on the NCBI dataset, and LO weights are assigned to be relevant and non - relevant for a given user query according to the Tilted Time series and the Cosine similarity score. Results showed that the model proposed has much better accuracy.]]>

Method: The proposed technique converts the time aggregated graph model of a dynamic network into a Line Graph (LG) while maintaining the time-varying graph’s node reachability information. This LG is used thereafter to generate TS-MCS as well as TS-MPS to compute 2TR of the network.

Result: The DTN examples are presented to show the efficacy and salient features of our algorithm to obtain 2TR of such networks.

Conclusion: The terminologies and techniques used for studying/analyzing network reliability of static networks can be extended to dynamic networks as well, e.g., the notion of minimal path sets to TS-MPS or minimal cut sets to TS-MCS, to assess their network reliability-a potential area of furthering network reliability research.]]>

Method: The proposed algorithm uses combination of symmetric (AES) and asymmetric (ECC) cryptography techniques along with the hash function. Further, the proposed algorithm checks the integrity of messages during communication in the sensor network.

Results: The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm examined through the various metrics like communication, computation, storage overheads. The comparison of results validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm.

Conclusion: The proposed hybrid algorithm provide a secure and efficient solution to the energy inhibit sensor networks. ]]>

Conclusion: A large amount of data could be lost even if there is a very short disruption in the optical backbone network. ]]>

Methods: In this context, this paper propose an efficient trust management architecture for cloud service selection and put forward Combined Preference Ranking Algorithm (CPRA) for initial ranking of CSPs and their services before doing any transaction in the past based on CCs requirements.

Results: The proposed trust management architecture prompts the CSPs to improve the Quality of Service (QoS) by adhering to Service Level Agreement (SLA).

Conclusion: The experimental results show that compared with other ranking approaches CPRA generates the accurate ranking list of CSPs with minimal execution time.]]>

Objective: Direct Torque Control (DTC) is applied to the control of an induction motor in healthy and an open circuit fault in the PWM three phase voltage fed inverter. Neural DTC is developed and used to improve the speed dynamic behavior of the drive system under faulty switch occurrence.

Method: The validity of the proposed control scheme is tested under normal conditions and switching fail in the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) caused by an open circuit. Through a simulation testing of an induction motor drive system at different speed references, a comparison between basic DTC and Neural DTC is performed.

Results: Simulated results on 1.5-kW induction motor drive show the performance of the proposed control in normal and faulty cases. The stator current, flux, torque, and speed at different references are determined and compared in the above techniques using MATLAB-SIMULINK.

Conclusion: A neural network (NN) DTC control system under an open switch fault is proposed without the need for classical switching table. Using hybrid intelligent techniques should improve the DTC performances for multiple faults occurrence.]]>

Results: A broad classification of multistage interconnection networks based on network functionality, reliability and fault tolerance is presented in order to emphasize the important principles which differentiate the network architectures. For each class of network, significant results are given and the basic design principles are explained.

Conclusion: The various multistage interconnection networks design provide high performance, availability, throughput, lower latency, less power consumption along with improved faulttolerance and reliability. However, there is a rising demand for new fault-tolerant and reliable multistage interconnection networks.]]>

**BENTHAM SCIENCE DISCLAIMER:**

It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.]]>

Result: In the end, our algorithm also gains a minimax path from untagged samples to tagged samples. The experimental results proved that this algorithm is applicable to semi-supervised learning on small-size and that it can also gain better classification results for large-size image at the same time.

Conclusion: In our paper, considering the connectivity of the neighboring matrix and the diversity of the characteristics, we used meanshift clustering algorithm,next we will use fuzzy energy clustering[ ] on our algorithm. we will study the function of these paths.]]>

Result: The present paper discusses the relations between bugs being reported and bugs being closed. It also discusses some parameters related to the study of bugs. In this paper, new parameters have been introduced that help in the improvement of quality and this is the novelty of paper.

Conclusion: The research mainly covers the problem of finding the relation of collaborative growth with the quality of software. The paper also covers improvements in parameters like the rate of bug fixing. It also discusses the significance of these parameters. we have suggested a new parameter called the bug closing rate. And this can be calculated in two ways.]]>

Results: The antenna resonates at 2.16 GHz and 2.79 GHz. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.08 GHz-2.25 GHz at center frequency 2.16 GHz and is 2.7 GHz-2.87 GHz at center frequency 2.79 GHz. The optimized antenna model is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results are presented and discussed. The proposed antenna provides a maximum gain of 4.463 dB and the maximum directivity of 5.846 dBi. The maximum radiation efficiency and total efficiency of the antenna are 79.85% and 69.01%, respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed antenna is suitable for dual-band wireless applications.]]>

Result: The proposed composite insecurity index uses available synchronized measurements from phasor measurement units (PMUs) to assess the development of cascading outages. Considering different operational scenarios and multiple levels of contingencies (up to N-3), fast decoupled power flow (FDPF) have been used for contingency replications. The developed technique applied to IEEE 14-bus and 57-bus standard test system for steady-state security evaluation.

Conclusion: The obtained results ensure the robustness and effectiveness of the established procedure in the assessment of the system security irrespective of the network size or operating conditions.]]>

Results: Standard parameters of the proposed Wardha-Aurangabad 1200 kV transmission line in India are considered for simulation model. The use of CSR has been found to be effective in mitigating system problems.

Conclusion: The system can be used for maintaining voltage profile, resulting in enhancement of the reliability of the UHV transmission system.]]>

Conclusion: Through the simulations and experiments, the results show that the proposed method can effectively decrease noise and enhance feature extraction effect of CICA method, and extract the desired gear fault feature, especially the low-frequency and weak fault feature. ]]>

Conclusion: In this paper, sensor-based and sensorless methods have been studied and the performance has been compared in four operating environments of speed and torque values. The comparative results of both methods have been shown in the MATLAB/Simulink environment]]>

Results: The main concept is based on cluster heads cooperation with each other known as Cooperative Clusters to transfer information to the base station. The Primary results reveals a 17% and 16% reduction in energy consumption was achieved over the shortest path technique and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm respectively. Results also show a remarkable improvement in the system lifetime due to the new applied scheme.

Conclusion: The other method is by PSO algothrim at beginig it sending Randomly then it will select the path by using the feed back acknowledgment after that it will collect the information by sendinf it for the Cluster heads by updating the information status automatically. That’s why we descoverd the PSO advantages than the others.]]>

Method: In this paper, We imputed the missing values in incomplete datasets by various imputation/ non-imputation techniques to complete the data set and then conventional fuzzy clustering algorithm is applied to get the clustering results.

Results: Experiments on various synthetic data sets and real data sets from UCI repository are carried out. To evaluate the performance of the various imputation/ non-imputation based FCM clustering algorithm, several performance criteria and statistical tests are considered. Experimental results on various data sets show that the linear interpolation based FCM clustering performs significantly better than other imputation as well as non-imputation techniques.

Conclusion: It is concluded that clustering algorithm are data specific, no clustering technique can give good results on all data sets. It depends upon both the data type and the percentage of missing attributes in the dataset. Through this study, we have shown that linear interpolation based FCM clustering algorithm can be used effectively for clustering of incomplete data set.]]>

Objective: The effectiveness of AGIDS vs. artificial neural network and other soft-computing algorithms has been shown in classification, system modeling and regression problems.

Method: For solving a real-world problem a tradeoff should be taken between the needed accuracy and the available time and processing resources.

Result: The simulation result shows that optimization approach will affect the accuracy of modelling being better, but its computation time is rather high.

Conclusion: The simulation shows that AGIDS algorithm has a suitable efficacy in solving complex problems without using complex optimization algorithms.

Other: The simulation shows that AGIDS algorithm has a suitable efficacy in solving complex problems without using complex optimization algorithms.]]>

Methods: The application of K-nearest neighbor algorithm in Wi-Fi positioning is studied by analyzing the Wi-Fi fingerprint location algorithm based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm in Wi-Fi positioning. The KNN algorithm is computationally intensive and time-consuming. In order to improve the positioning efficiency, improve the positioning accuracy and reduce the computation time, a fast weighted K-neighbor correlation algorithm based on RSSI is proposed based on the K-Means algorithm.

Results: Thereby achieving the purpose of reducing the calculation time, quickly estimating the position distance, and improving the positioning accuracy.

Conclusion: Simulation analysis shows that the algorithm can effectively shorten the positioning time and improve the positioning efficiency in robot Wi-Fi positioning.]]>