Research: Design, development and optimization of ramipril solid lipid nanoparticles using solvent emulsification and evaporation method

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Rohan R. Vakhariya*, Vijay R. Salunkhe, Dheeraj S. Randive, Mangesh A. Bhutkar, Somnath D. Bhinge.

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Abstract:

Background: Ramipril, an antihypertensive drug exhibit 28% of oral bioavailability and also expelled quickly through the kidneys. Moreover, numerous side effects reported by the ramipril such as, hypotension (postural), increasing potassium level, and angioedema, when presented as an immediate dosage form. Hence, to conquer the side-effects associated with the drug and to increase its bioavailability.

Objective: The intention of the proposed approach was to design, develop and optimize Ramipril loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

Methods: Solvent emulsification and evaporation method were employed to prepare Ramipril loaded solid lipid nanoparticles containign stearic acid and phosphatidylcholine as a lipid and surfactant respectively. The prepared formulations have been confirmed with particle size analyzer, %entrapment efficiency, Zeta Potential, SEM, X-ray diffraction study, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, in-vitro release study and stability study.

Result: The obtained results were noted to be within the standard limits. No interaction between Ramipril and other excipients, were confirmed with the FT-IR study of the formulations. Particle size analyzer confirmed that the nanometer size of prepared formulations ranges between 200-350nm. Percent entrapment efficiency was observed in the range of 70.61–91.60%. Entrapment and particle size results of the nanoparticles from R5 batch was an adjudged. The designed formulation noted 70.50% cumulative drug release within a period of 7hrs. The designed batch showed mean of zeta potential at-29.4 mV exhibiting good stability of formulation.

Conclusion: The developed formulation was found to be stable and safe, and represents a promising system for the sustained and controlled delivery of Ramipril.

Keywords: Ramipril , Solid lipid nanoparticles , Entrapment efficiency , Korsmeyer peppas

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2210681209666191204113659
Price: $95


Exploring Iranian Women’s Perceptions and Experiences of Their Spouses’ Behavior towards Male Factor Infertility: A Qualitative Study

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Ali Taghipour, Fatemeh Zahra Karimi*, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari.

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Infertility, as a life crisis, affects women more than men, even when women are not infertile.

Objective: This study was conducted aimed at exploring Iranian women’s perceptions and experiences of their husbands’ behavior towards male factor infertility.

Methods: This qualitative study was performed using content analysis. A purposeful sampling method was employed and continued until data saturation for women who had referred to Milad Fertility Clinic and Health Care Centers within the time period of 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran, with their husbands being infertile. Thirty semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women. Conventional content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Besides, Lincoln and Guba's evaluative criteria were utilized to check the trustworthiness of the study.

Results: Perceived spousal emotional distress was the main topic of the study, which consisted of two subgroups, i.e., 1- husbands’ chaotic emotions with the sub-categories, including the “feelings of inferiority and incompetence”, “isolationism in life”, “irritability and arrogance”, “pessimism and cynicism”, as well as “anxiety and aggression”, and 2- husbands’ reluctance to seek treatment, including “inattention to medical prescriptions”, “resistance to the sperm analysis test”, and “opposition to the assisted reproductive technology and adoption”.

Conclusion: Male infertility can lead to marital problems and mistreatment of women. Hence, supportive and preventive measures are required to improve the conditions of such women.

Keywords: Male Infertility, Women, Spouse Behavior, Perceptions, Experiences, Qualitative Study, Content Analysis

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573404815666191204113516
Price: $95


Machine Learning Based Parametric Estimation Approach for Poll Prediction

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Abdul Manan koli*, Muqeem Ahmed.

Journal Name: Recent Advances in Computer Science and Communications
Formerly: Recent Patents on Computer Science

Abstract:

Background: The process of election prediction started long back when common practice for election predictions were traditional methods like pundits, hereditary factor etc. However, in recent times new methods and techniques are being used for election forecasting like Data mining, Data Science, Big data, and numerous machine learning techniques. By using such computational techniques the whole process of political forecasting is changed and poll predictions are carried out through them. Objective: The main objective of this research work is to propose an election prediction model for developing areas especially for the state of Jammu and Kashmir (India).

Method: The election prediction model is developed in Jupyter notebook web application using different supervised machine learning techniques. To obtain the optimal results, we perform the hyperparameter tuning of all the proposed classifiers. For measuring the performance of poll prediction system we used confusion matrix along with AUROC curve which depicts that this methods can be well suited for political forecasting. An important contribution of this article is to design a Prediction system which can be used for making prediction in other fields like cardiovascular disease predictions, weather forecasting etc.

Results: This model is tested and trained with real-time dataset of the state Jammu and Kashmir (India). We applied features selection techniques like Random Forest, Decision Tree Classifier, Gradient boosting Classifier and Extra Gradient Boosting and obtained eight most important parameters like (Central Influence, Religion Followers, Party Wave, Party Abbreviations, Sensitive Areas, Vote Bank, Incumbent Party, and Caste Factor) for poll predictions with their mean weightages. By applying different classifier to get mean weightage of different parameters for this election prediction models, it has been observed that Party wave got maximum mean weightage of 0.82% as compared to others parameters. After obtaining the vital parameters for political forecasting, we applied various machine learning algorithms like Decision tree, Random forest, K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine for the early prediction of elections. Experimental results show that Support Vector Machine outperformed with a higher accuracy of 0.84% in contrast to others classifiers.

Conclusion: In this paper, a clear overview of election prediction models, their potentials, techniques, parameters as well as limitations are outlined. We conclude this work by stating that election predictions can indeed be forecasted with significant parameters however, with caution due to the limitations which were outlined in developing nations like sensitive areas, social unrest, religion etc. This research work may be considered as the first attempt to use multiple classifier for forecasting the Assembly election results of the state Jammu and Kashmir (India).

Keywords: Election Predictions, Forecasting, Data Mining, Social Media, Machine Learning

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2666255813666191204112601
Price: $95


Fabrication Technologies and Applications of Graphene-based co-polymeric Nano-composites: its challenges and Future works

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Pratik Chhapia, Harshad Patel*.

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Abstract:

Graphene based co-polymeric Nano-composites explored and trending in various applications as ascribing to its enhanced conductivity and controlled modification with wide specific surface areas. With the number of advantages of co-polymeric coating on Graphene or Graphene sheets and their derivatives, Graphene based co-polymeric Nano-composites fabricated by various techniques (deposition, ink jet, electro spinning, spin coating, in-situ techniques, etc.) and different conducting co-polymers show its exceptional chemical, mechanical, electrical and optical properties. Therefore, in the today’s world with greater quantities of various properties of co-polymer with Graphene based Nano-composites with enhanced stability, selectivity and sensitivity have been formed. In this review paper, we have particularly focused on recent advancing in fabrication of different technologies with the help of Graphene based co-polymeric Nano-composites and its various trending and future applications. Finally, on the personal standpoint; the key challenges of Graphene based co-polymeric Nano-composites are mentioned in hope to shed a light on their potential future prospects.

Keywords: Graphene, Nano-composites, Co-polymer, Conducting co-polymers , Enhanced stability, Enhanced selectivity

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2210681209666191204111725
Price: $95


Non-Targeted Metabolomics Signature in Plasma and Bone Marrow of Patients with Long Bone Injuries

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Hend Ibrahim, Omar Alnachoukati, Bridget A. Baxter, Trinette Chapin, Thomas Schroeppel, Julie Dunn, Elizabeth P. Ryan*.

Journal Name: Current Metabolomics and Systems Biology
Formerly: Current Metabolomics

Abstract:

Background: The contribution of long bone injury and reaming to the inflammatory response of trauma is unknown.

Introduction: This study evaluated whether metabolomics can be used to (1) reveal differences in plasma from long bone injury trauma patients before and after reaming and (2) distinguish healthy adult plasma from that of trauma patients.

Methods: Prospective cohort study with enrollment from February 17, 2017 to December 5, 2017. Included in this study were 15 patients with long bone injuries and 20 healthy adults. Patients with femoral or tibial fractures scheduled to undergo intramedullary nailing were identified at Medical Center of the Rockies, (Loveland, Co), and Memorial Hospital, (Colorado Springs, CO). Pre-and post-reaming plasma and bone marrow from fifteen patients with femoral and tibial fractures and 20 heathy adult plasma were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS).

Results: Trauma patients had 1259 plasma metabolites and healthy adults had 1272 plasma metabolites detected. Fifty percent (657 metabolites) were common between the bone marrow and plasma profiles, and 304 metabolites showed statistical significance for differential abundance between pre- and post-reaming (P<0.05). Post-ream lipids, fatty acids and ceramides were 1.09-1.46-fold increased and diacylglycerols were 0.73-0.82-fold decreased compared to the pre-ream patient control. Post-ream tryptophan metabolites were decreased 0.84-fold, whereas cysteine metabolites were elevated 1.42-fold. Metabolite signals associated with bone matrix remodeling, stress and inflammation were modulated in all patients.

Conclusion: Plasma metabolite signatures changed in long bone fracture patients pre- and post-reaming have showed distinct profiles from healthy adults without trauma injury. Metabolite signatures of long bone trauma patients have an inflammatory response reflective of healing cascades and merits additional testing for markers of individualized responses to injury.

Keywords: Bone Marrow, Plasma, Metabolomics, Fracture, Reaming, Trauma, Inflammation

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2666338407666191204111457
Price: $95


CNTs Supercapacitor Based on the PVDF/PVA Gel Electrolytes.

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Gobad Behzadi Pour*, Leila Fekri Aval, Masoud Mirzaee.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology

Abstract:

In this paper, the supercapacitor based on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes has been fabricated. The polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a gel electrolyte. The electrodes and electrolytes thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific capacitance (Cs) of the CNTs-based supercapacitor has been measured using the cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic methods. For the scan rate, 20 mV s-1 the Cs of the CNTs-based supercapacitor was 173 F g-1. Using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the Nyquist curve has been plotted. The reactance capacitance and the equivalent series resistance of the CNTs-based supercapacitor with PVDF/PVA gel electrolytes were 90 Ω and 25 Ω respectively. Also, few patents to the CNTs-based supercapacitor have been reviewed and cited. The CNTs-based supercapacitor proposed a new structure solid-state and flexible supercapacitor with high performance.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Electrode, Specific capacitance, Performance, Polyvinylidene , Scanning

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1872210513666191204111006
Price: $95



Discovery of 2-aminopyridine Derivatives with Antichagasic and Antileishmanial Activity Using Phenotypic Assays.

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Daiane Yukie Tezuka, Sergio de Albuquerque, Carlos Alberto Montanari, Andrei Leitão*.

Journal Name: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

Abstract:

Background: Compounds previously studied as anticancer were screened against trypomastigotes to access the bioactivity. The epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain and the promastigote form of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum were used in this work.

Methods: Cell-based assays were performed to access the bioactivity of the compounds using MTT and the flow cytometry methods.

Results: Neq0438, Neq0474 and Neq0440 had the highest potency, with EC50 of 39 µM (L. amazonensis), 52 µM (T. cruzi) and 81 µM (T. cruzi), respectively. These molecules were inactive for Balb/C fibroblast cell line at concentrations above 250 µM, showing selectivity for the parasites.

Conclusion: This is the first report that demonstrates antiparasitic activity for the 2-aminopyridine scaffold, with cross-activity against cancer cells.

Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania amazonensis, Cell-based assays, Selectivity index, Antiparasitic compounds

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1570180816666191204105232
Price: $95


Beneficial effects of melatonin and atorvastatin on retinopathy in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Mansoor Shahriari, Saeed Mehrzadi, Masood Naseripour, Iman Fatemi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Habib Ghaznavi*.

Journal Name: Current Drug Therapy

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Atorvastatin (ATO) plus melatonin (MEL) on streptozocin-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) in rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (50 mg/kg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups (8 rats/group): Control group, Diabetic group, Diabetic + MEL group (20 mg/kg/day), Diabetic + ATO group (10 mg/kg/day), Diabetic + MEL + ATO group (as above). Treatments were started one week after induction of diabetes and continued for 7 weeks. At the end of the experiment, angiography was performed and rats were killed and retinas were harvested for pathological and molecular examinations. Administration of MEL reduced the fluorescein leakage, and MDA and ROS levels compared to diabetic group. Treatment with ATO only reduced ROS levels compared to diabetic group, while administration of ATO plus MEL decreased these indices compared to the diabetic and ATO groups. Histologically, retinal vascular congestion was not observed in the combined ATO and MEL group as compared to the diabetic, ATO, and MEL groups. These data provide evidence for the therapeutic value of MEL in combination with ATO in clinical practice for prevention of DR.

Keywords: Atorvastatin, Melatonin, Diabetic Retinopathy, Fluorescein Angiography, Reactive Oxygen Species

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1574885514666191204104925
Price: $95


Synthesis and Evaluation of α-Asaronol Esters with LDH and GABAA Receptor Modulation as Anticonvulsant Agents

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Yajun Bai, Bin Li, Jing Xie, Xufei Chen, Shu Cheng, Yujun Bai, Ying Sun, Fanggang Qin, Jing Liang, Yanrui Ding, Xiaohui Zheng*.

Journal Name: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

Abstract:

Background: Our previous studies showed that α-asaronol was a potential antiepileptic candidate. Here, twelve O-terminus modified ester derivatives of α-asaronol were designed, synthesized and evaluated their anticonvulsant activity.

Methods: All synthetic compounds were subjected to three animal models of seizure (MES, scPTZ and sc3-MP models) combined with neurotoxicity test, as well as the LDH inhibitory test. Furthermore, GABAA Receptor modulation and pharmacokinetic evaluation of compound 4k were also performed.

Results: Five compounds (4a, 4b, 4d, 4e and 4k) showed significant anticonvulsant properties at the dose of 30-300 mg/kg in MES and scPTZ test, but weak activity in sc3-MP model. Meanwhile, 4a, 4b, 4d and 4k showed good LDH inhibitory activity in vitro. Specifically, 4k was the best compound in above evaluation, and better than that of α-asaronol and reference compound (stiripentol). In addition, 4k could increase chloride ion influx by modulating GABAA receptor α1β2γ2 subtype with EC50 of 48.65 ± 10.31 μM and showed good PK profiles in rats with moderate oral bioavailability (51.5%).

Conclusion: These results suggested 4k possesses potential effectiveness in treatment of therapy-resistant seizures and is expected to be developed as a novel molecule for safer and efficient anticonvulsants having neuroprotective effects as well as low toxicity.

Keywords: Drug design, α-Asaronol ester derivatives, Anticonvulsant, GABAΑ receptor α1β2γ2, LDH inhibitory, Pharmacokinetics

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1570180816666191204104127
Price: $95


Development of MatLab Coding for Early Detection of Leukemia through Automated Analysis of RBCs

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Durjoy Majumder*.

Journal Name: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Bone marrow biopsy has become an integral part of leukemia diagnosis and its treatment. Several advancements are being made towards the analysis of digital images of biopsy samples. Recently FDA approved the procedures of digital health. In tune with that digital image analysis has become propelled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, scientific community becomes interested to look into the red blood cells (RBCs) for early detection of cancer, including leukemia. The reasons are due to their abundance in peripheral and hence, easily accessible compared to bone marrow biopsy procedure. High magnification and high-resolution electron microscopy based ultra-structural analysis of RBCs already proved the utility of the hypothesis about a decade ago. However, in clinical set-up, electron microscopy based procedures are the major bottleneck in implementation of early detection of leukemia. Algorithm based computer vision may be suitable to overcome this limitation.

Methods: An intensive search with PubMed and Google for early diagnosis of leukemia through RBC light microscopic images was made. For this search on image processing algorithm for RBC was also made in PubMed, IEEE Xplorer and Google; and latest developments are noted. To fill the existing gap a user-friendly MatLab coding is developed for automated analysis of RBC images.

Result: RBC images from both normal and leukemia were analyzed with the developed code. Each RBC cells were analyzed individually for each samples of normal and leukemia. So in the output cellular characteristics namely, radius, perimeter, area, convexity, solidity were represented in a quantitative manner. Comparison of mean values between normal and leukemia groups for corresponding variables showed statistical significance. In the test run, data of 82 RBC cells from single leukemia sample when compared with the data of pooled data of normal samples also showed significant difference (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Thus, the developed code successfully distinguishes between RBC cells of leukemia and normal. We hope that this RBC based developed code would be useful in identifying early stage of leukemia in an individual patient; however, for this ~100 RBC cells are needed to be analyzed. As the developed code is based on RBC based diagnosis; so may be applied to other cancer sand if needed, further modification is possible due to availability of code. Thus it is expected that the developed MatLab code may play a role in preventive oncology.

Keywords: Digital Image, Automated Procedure, Mathematical Morphology, Red Blood Cell, Leukemia, Matlab Code, Light Microscopy Image

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573394715666191204102545
Price: $95