Acknowledgements to Reviewers

Author(s): .

Journal Name: Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 8 , 2019

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VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2019
Page: [937 - 937]
Pages: 1
DOI: 10.2174/157340641508191118145958


Adult neurogenesis in epileptogenesis: An update for preclinical finding and potential clinical translation

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen*.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Abstract:

Epileptogenesis refers to the process in which a normal brain becomes epileptic, and is characterized by hypersynchronous spontaneous recurrent seizures involving a complex epileptogenic network. Current available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy is generally symptomatic in controlling seizures but is not disease-modifying in epileptogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that adult neurogenesis, specifically in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, is crucial in epileptogenesis. In this review, we describe the pathological changes that occur in adult neurogenesis in the epileptic brain and how adult neurogenesis is involved in epileptogenesis through different interventions. This is followed by a discussion of some of the molecular signaling pathways involved in regulating adult neurogenesis, which could be potential druggable targets for epileptogenesis. Finally, we provide perspectives on some possible research directions for future studies.

Keywords: Epileptogenesis, Adult neurogenesis, Drug target

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DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191118142314
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Neuropharmacological and Neurogenetic Correlates of Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) As A Function of Ethnicity: Relevance to Precision Addiction Medicine

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Author(s): Tomilowo Abijo, Kenneth Blum, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis*.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Abstract:

Background: Over 100 people die daily from opioid overdose and $78.5B per year is spent toward treatment efforts, however the real societal cost is multifold greater. Alternative strategies to eradicate/manage drug misuse and addiction need consideration. The perception of opioid addiction as a social/criminal problem has evolved to evidence-based considerations of them as clinical disorders with a genetic basis. We present evaluations of the genetics of addiction with ancestry-specific risk profiles for consideration.

Objective: Studies of gene variants associated with predisposition to substance use disorders (SUDs) are monolithic, and exclude many ethnic groups, especially Hispanics and African Americans. We evaluate gene polymorphisms that impact brain reward and predispose individuals to opioid addictions, with a focus on the disparity of research which includes individuals of African and Hispanic descent.

Methodology: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for: Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), Genome-wide association studies (GWAS); genetic variants; polymorphisms, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP); genomics, epigenetics, race, ethnic group, ethnicity, ancestry, Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Hispanic, Asian, addictive behaviors, reward deficiency syndrome (RDS), mutation, insertion/deletion, and promotor region.

Results: Many studies exclude non-White individuals. Studies that include diverse populations report ethnicity-specific frequencies of risk genes, with certain polymorphisms specifically associated with Caucasian and not African-American or Hispanic susceptibility to OUD or SUDs, and vice versa.

Conclusion: To adapt precision medicine-based addiction management in a blended society, we propose that ethnicity/ancestry-informed genetic variations must be analyzed to provide real precision-guided therapeutics with the intent to attenuate this uncontrollable fatal epidemic.

Keywords: Dopamine homeostasis, Genetics, Precision Addiction Management (PAM), Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), Ethnic groups, Gene guided therapy.

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DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191118125702
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Mitochondrion as a selective target for treatment of atherosclerosis: Role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and defective mitophagy in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation

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Author(s): Alexander N. Orekhov*, Anastasia V. Poznyak, Igor A. Sobenin, Nikita N. Nikifirov, Ekaterina A. Ivanova.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Abstract:

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects different arteries in the human body and often leads to severe neurological complications, such as stroke and its sequelae. Affected blood vessels develop atherosclerotic lesions in the form of focal thickening of the intimal layer, so called atherosclerotic plaques.

Objectives: Despite the high priority of atherosclerosis research for global health and the numerous preclinical and clinical studies conducted, currently there is no effective pharmacological treatment that directly impacts atherosclerotic plaques. Many knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of the mechanisms of plaque formation. In this Review, we discuss the role of mitochondria in different cell types involved in atherogenesis and provide information about mtDNA mutations associated with the disease.

Results: Mitochondria of blood and arterial wall cells appear to be one of the important factors in the disease initiation and development. Significant experimental evidence connects oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular disease. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and mutations are being considered as potential disease markers. Further study of mtDNA damage and associated dysfunction may open new perspectives for atherosclerosis treatment.

Conclusion: Mitochondria can be considered as important disease-modifying factors in several chronic pathologies. Deletions and mutations of mtDNA may be used as potential disease markers. Mitochondria-targeting antioxidant therapies appear to be promising for the development of treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Mitochondrion, Inflammation, mtDNA, Oxidative stress.

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DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191118125018
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Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief:

Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Greece

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Active Suspension Control Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Shaobin Lv, Guoqiang Chen*, Jun Dai.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering

Abstract:

Background: The active suspension can be adjusted in real time according to the change of road condition and vehicle state, so that the active suspension has outstanding performance and has received widespread attention. Suspension control strategies and actuators are the key issues of the active suspension, and are the main research direction for active suspension patents.

Objective: The numerical analysis method is proposed to study the performance characteristics of the active suspension controlled by different controllers.

Methods: The active suspension control model and control strategy based on the particle swarm optimization are established, two active suspensions controlled by the sliding mode controller and the fuzzy PID controller are proposed, and two active suspension systems are optimized by the particle swarm optimization.

Results: The analysis results show that the performance of the active suspension is significantly improved compared with the passive suspension when the vehicle runs on the same road. The ride comfort of the active suspension controlled by the fuzzy PID controller has the best adaptive performance when the vehicle runs on different grade roads or white noise roads. The active suspension controlled by the fuzzy PID controller has the best ride comfort.

Conclusion: A good control strategy can effectively improve the performance of the active suspension. To improve the performance of the active suspension, the active suspension can be controlled by utilizing different control strategies. The results lays a foundation for the active suspension experiments, the dynamic analysis and the optimization design of suspension structure.

Keywords: Active suspension, Fuzzy PID controller, Numerical analysis method, Particle swarm optimization, Performance characteristic, Sliding mode controller.

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DOI: 10.2174/2212797612666191118123838
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Alzheimer’s Disease Targeted Nano-Based Drug Delivery Systems

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Author(s): Gülcem Altinoglu, Terin Adali*.

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and is part of a massive and growing health care burden that is destroying the cognitive function of more than 50 million individuals worldwide. Today, therapeutic options are limited to approaches with mild symptomatic benefits. The failure in developing effective drugs is attributed to, but not limited to the highly heterogeneous nature of AD with multiple underlying hypotheses and multifactorial pathology. In addition, targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), for the diagnosis and therapy of neurological diseases like AD, is restricted by the challenges posed by blood-brain interfaces surrounding the CNS, limiting the bioavailability of therapeutics. Research done over the last decade has focused on developing new strategies to overcome these limitations and successfully deliver drugs to the CNS. Nanoparticles, that are capable of encapsulating drugs with sustained drug release profiles and adjustable physiochemical properties, can cross the protective barriers surrounding the CNS. Thus, nanotechnology offers new hope for AD treatment as a strong alternative to conventional drug delivery mechanisms. In this review, potential application of nanoparticle based approaches in Alzheimer’s disease and their implications in therapy is discussed.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, nanoparticles, nanotechnology, drug delivery, targeted delivery

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DOI: 10.2174/1389450120666191118123151
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Development of Patient Databases for Endocrinological Clinical and Pharmaceutical Trials: A Survey

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Author(s): Konstantinos Vezertzis, George I. Lambrou*, Dimitrios Koutsouris.

Journal Name: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Abstract:

Background: According to European legislation, a clinical trial is research involving patients, which also includes a research end-product. The main objective of the clinical trial is to prove that the research product, i.e. a proposed medication or treatment, is effective and safe for patients. The implementation, development, and operation of a patient database, which will function as a matrix of samples with the appropriate parameterization, may provide appropriate tools to generate samples for clinical trials.

Aim: The aim of the present work is to review the literature with respect to the up-to-date progress on the development of databases for clinical trials and patient recruitment using free and open-source software in the field of endocrinology.

Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted by the authors from 1984 to June 2019. Original articles and systematic reviews selected, and the titles and abstracts of papers screened to determine whether they met the eligibility criteria, and full texts of the selected articles were retrieved.

Results: The present review has indicated that the electronic health records are relating with both the patient recruitment and the decision support systems in the domain of endocrinology. The free and open-source software provides integrated solutions concerning electronic health records, patient recruitment, and the decision support systems.

Conclusions: The patient recruitment relates closely to the electronic health record. There is maturity at the academic and research level, which may lead to good practices for the deployment of the electronic health record in selecting the right patients for clinical trials.

Keywords: Clinical trials, Pharmaceutical trials, Electronic health record (EHR), Patient recruitment, Decision support systems, Open source software

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DOI: 10.2174/1574887114666191118122714
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Study of Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial Activities and Analysis of Different Constituents found in Rhizome Essential Oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb., Collected from North East India

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Manabi Paw, Roktim Gogoi, Neelav Sarma, Sudin K Pandey, Angana Borah, Twahira Begum, Mohan Lal*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Abstract:

Background: This investigation was designed to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, genotoxicity, antimicrobial activities of Curcuma caesia Roxb rhizome essential oil.

Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition, standard antioxidative test DPPH assay, reducing power assay, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity (egg albumin denaturation, protease inhibitory assay) were also tested by using standard methods. Similarly, antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration ability (MIC); while to test genotoxicity, Allium cepa assay was used.

Results: GC/MS analysis revealed eucalyptol (28.55%), epicurzerenone (19.62%), camphor (21.73%) as the major components of C. caesia rhizome essential oil. Potent antioxidant (IC50= 48.08±0.003 µg/mL), anti-inflammatory (IC50= 121.7±0.0013 µg/mL), and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil were recorded better than the standard drugs Flucanazole for fungus and Ciprofloxacin for bacteria. The essential oil also possesses strong antibacterial effect against two tested bacterial strains B. subtilis and B. cereus with 7.5 µg/mL MIC value, while for fungal strains the essential oil was most effective against S. cereviaceae with an MIC value of 2.5 µg/mL. All the data were recorded in triplicates. Allium cepa assay revealed minor genotoxicity with mitotic index, MI= 27.70%; chromosome aberration, A= 1.1% of C. caesia rhizome essential oil.

Conclusion: C. caesia rhizome essential oil possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties with negligible genotoxicity effects. Hence, the present study is highly significant for utilization of rhizome of C. caesia, a high value ethnopharmocological plant for advanced R & D and commercial application.

Keywords: Curcuma caesia, Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial.

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DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666191118121609
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Acknowledgements to Reviewers

Author(s): .

Journal Name: Current Immunology Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2019

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VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [215 - 215]
Pages: 1
DOI: 10.2174/157339551502191118121021