ISSN (Print): 1872-2113
ISSN (Online): 2212-4039
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ISSN (Print): 1872-2113
ISSN (Online): 2212-4039
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Methods to Enhance Aqueous Drug Solubility
Guest Editor(s): Mohammad Tahir Ansari, Mohammad Tabish, Amit Kumar Nayak
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My experience of publishing in Bentham Science Publishers’ journal "Recent Patent in Drug Delivery and Formulation" has been quite productive and memorable.
I received excellent support and assistance during each and every stage of the publishing process, starting from the article submission to the final acceptance of my paper.
Dr. Bhavesh B. Patel
(Technical Services South Asia & SEA Health & Nutrition, Mumbai, India)
Has contributed: Review of Patents and Application of Spray Drying in Pharmaceutical, Food and Flavor Industry
The eyes have a vital role in our body. They permit us to visually perceive the surroundings and make correct movements
while performing physical acts. It would be a dark world without them. It is due to its delicate, sophisticated and intricate structure
that drug delivery to and through them has been the most challenging task for the pharmaceutical scientist. Eyes typically
exhibit high turnover of fluids (tears) and permit administration of only minute volume of formulations even for local effects. In
addition, cautions pertaining to impeding movement of eye lids, visual clarity, damage to corneal membrane etc. further restrict
the type of dosage forms as well as drugs qualifying for safe and effective delivery to the eyes. Systemic delivery through this
noninvasive route still remains a daunting and elusive task to the scientists.
Recently, there has been an upsurge in attempts aimed at tackling the obfuscating challenges and making drug delivery to
and across the eye more effective and safe. Formulations of nano pharmaceuticals, hydrogels exhibiting stimuli response as
well as less impedance to visual clarity, drug loaded contact lenses etc. are prudent attempts worth mentioning. This issue aims
at analyzing recent attempts made by researchers in the field of nano particles, advanced hydrogels, advanced bio inspired films
capable of sustained release etc. including patents filed in this niche area for various ocular diseases.
Several approaches like the use of liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nano lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions,
noisomes, polymeric micelles etc. have been investigated for enhanced drug delivery and pharmacodynamics . Advanced
hydrogels capable of responding to stimuli (temperature, pressure, pH, ions etc.) seem to have a distinct edge over the conventional
pre formed gels. They exhibit property of immediately accumulating the drug at the site of stimuli and decrease the burden
of loading the entire formulation at a non stimuli site . Nano particles containing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor
A have been investigated for successful treatment of age related macular degeneration. These particles have a distinct advantage
in terms of patient compliance over the conventional intravitreal injections .
The pharmaceutical scientists are constantly aiming at solving the problem of low ocular drug penetration due to low aqueous
drug solubility, poor retention, decreased permeation of the drug through the corneal epithelium, and loss of drug due to
high lacrimal fluid turnover. Interestingly, solubilizers frequently used for increasing the aqueous solubility of drugs in ocular
formulations are themselves irritating to corneal membrane and often produce disruption of corneal integrity. Hence, a nano
formulation free from solubilizers can be envisaged to offer unique advantage to the patient . Patents of nano formulations
for cataract, tear dysfunction syndrome, microbial diseases, high intraocular pressure etc. are a pointer to the gravity of the
situation because the ocular bioavailability of most drugs is often less than 5% .
Corneal damage due to repeated exposure to blue light emitting diode (exposure to TV, mobiles etc.) has become a common
problem in recent years. Free radical scavenging and adhesive properties are essential attributes of such protective gel formulations
. A major ocular concern, for a vast majority of diabetic patients is diabetic retinopathy. Success of drug therapy for
diabetic retinopathy requires sustained drug release from ocular formulations. A recent approach in this direction is the use of
bio-mimicking polymer – drug combination. The polymer mimics the active site of aldose reductase 2 enzyme and releases the
drug (ALR2 inhibitor) slowly over a long period of time, thereby resulting in prolonged control of intraocular pressure .
The compilation of manuscripts in this issue will be beneficial to the readers in gaining an insight into diverse strategies
being employed by the pharmaceutical scientists for overcoming the indomitable challenges for successful and effective ocular