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ISSN (Online): 2212-389X
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ISSN (Print): 1574-3624
ISSN (Online): 2212-389X
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Cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease affect millions of people worldwide and responsible for
several deaths every year. This editorial is the collection of most of the known biochemical, cell organelles, receptors and
physiological mechanisms which are involved in pathophysiology of these diseases. The main aim of the article is to
summarize all possible drug targets which can either alter the signal transduction or indirect involvement in the management of
diseases. The physiological processes, receptors which are involved in signal transductions, biochemical/ biomolecules and cell
organelles may be good targets for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinsonism. Discussion to provide
knowledge about target selection for new drug discovery process is also presented. The properties of good drug target must
include modification in the treatment of the disease without a change in other physiological processes. The components of
signal transduction pathways are mainly the target of drugs which may easily alter. Cancer occurs mainly due to the mutation of
proteins sequencing DNA. This mutation is caused by various abnormal signal transduction mediated by Tie-2 kinase,
VEGFR2 (KDR) tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol
3-kinase (PI3K), mTOR, Hsp90, CDK, DHFR, histone deacetylase, carbonic anhydrases, Rad6B and p21-Activated kinase 4
(PAK-4) which are major targets associated to the cancer which have been extensively discussed by Kumar et al. [1-2] in this
thematic issue. Rheumatoid arthritis is due to the transcription gene alteration or altered gene expression which affects
metalloproteinase, cytokine production and proliferation/survival of cells. The main cause of Parkinson’s disease is degradation
of dopaminergic neurons, failure of ubiquitin protease system, mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative distress. In cancer, the
AXL receptor kinase, phosphodiesterase, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase, Farnesyltransferase, arginyl tRNA synthase,
and lon protease may be the good choice of drug targets as biochemicals/biomolecules. In rheumatoid arthritis, mainly
sphingosine-1-phosphate, and interleukin-18 and in parkinson’s disease, α-synuclein, heat shock protein, RAGEs, uric acid,
parkin protein, transcription factor ED, mono amino oxidase and torsin-A may be the choice. Cell organelles like golgi matrix
protein, microtubules and generic DNA may be the preferred drug target for anticancer drugs while fibroblast, stromal and mast
cells in rheumatoid arthritis. For Parkinson’s disease epigenome, mitochondria may be the best choice for drug targets.
Angiogenesis, DNA synthesis, transcription regulator and some GI/S transitions like physiological process may be good targets
for anticancer drugs while apoptosis is considered for rheumatoid arthritis. As for as receptors are concerned the
cyclooxygenase 2, HSP2, protein kinase c for cancer and spleen/bruton tyrosine kinase may be better choices for rheumatoid
arthritis. For Parkinson’s disease, dopaminergic receptors, calcium channels, TIGARs, leucine rich receptor kinase-2, niacin
and signal receptors may be the good choice . Bera discussed the major targets of Alzheimer’s disease which include
acetylcholinesterase, glycogen synthase kinase, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Most
common neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s caused by both genetic and environmental factors.
Though various research strategies have been employed to eliminate the cause of the disease, but till date, successful strategies
available are symptomatic. Various compounds have been designed against the major neurodegenerative targets, such as
BACE1, acetylcholinesterase, glycogen synthase kinase, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor etc. in connection with Alzheimer’s
and Parkinson’s disorders .
The articles published in this issue of 2019 represent the gathering of technologies, innovations and advancements in various
fields like Power electronics, Control Engineering, Imaging Applications and Soft Computing. Among these articles, five
articles are outstanding in their reviews and novelty.
J. Gnanavadivel reviewed about the conventional front-end rectifier , which causes the line current distortion and power
factor reduction. Further, it results in lowering the power quality for Light Emitting Diode (LED) drive system. A prototype of
100W, 48V LED driver was developed for testing the performance of the controller. He presented the modified SEPIC LED
driver with PI integrated fuzzy and classical PI for controlling voltage. For controlling source current, classical PI is chosen.
Both are equipped with the modified SEPIC rectifier. Both conventional PI control and novel fuzzy tuned performances were
The next article by S. Menaka and S. Muralidharan focuses the need of Multi Level Inverter (MLI) to provide a high output
power from medium voltage source . Harmonic elimination in MLI is a challenging one and solved by optimum switching of
power electronic switches present in the MLI topology. Newton-Raphson method is the conventional and iterative based
method to obtain optimum switching angle to minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). To overcome this, harmonic
elimination is converted into an optimization task and is solved by using evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms
(GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). GA and PSO offer optimum switching angles to minimize THD and used to
increase the robustness of the system.
In the next article, A. Shyamala, S. Selvaperumal and G. Prabhakar summarize the moving object detection in dynamic environment
videos , which is more complex than the static environment videos. The moving object detection methodology is
tested on different video sequences in both indoor and outdoor environments. The proposed methodology consists of background
subtraction and classification modules. The absolute difference image is constructed in background subtraction module.
The features are extracted from this difference image and these extracted features are trained and classified using ANFIS classification
module. The proposed moving object detection methodology is analyzed in terms of Accuracy, Recall, Average Accuracy,
Precision and F-measure.
In the next publication, K. Annaraja proposed a novel system for the usage of Maximum Power Point Tracking of an expansive
Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) farm subjected to conceivable incomplete shading . The motivation behind the remote sensor
arrangement is to screen the sunlight based protection at various areas near each of the PV board from the tremendous region of
the photograph voltaic homestead comprising of countless voltaic boards. In the last article , S. Rajasekaran and S. Muralidharan
demonstrate the Firefly Algorithm (FA) based optimization method to locate the FACTS devices of exact rating and least
cost in the transmission system.
I would like to express my gratitude to the contributing authors of this issue, who have made great efforts in understanding
the Real time processing in Control, Computer Vision and Power Electronics, which led the way to the development of
novel ideas in future.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a
cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation, which ultimately
result in a response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors,
although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal
sensing) in a receptor give rise to a cascade of biochemical events along a signaling pathway.
When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular
responses to be coordinated. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in
the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in
proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events are the basic mechanisms
controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular
organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide
variety of ways. Abnormal signal transduction produces many diseases such
as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and Parkinson’s disease. A number of approaches have been
documented, including natural, synthetic as well as computational tools which are being studied
in this context. Screening the natural products, large combinatorial chemistry libraries and with
the advent of computational biology including proteomics, genomics and the analysis of
signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions
and disease mechanisms. This could pave a new way for the design and discovery of potential
compounds active against abnormal signal transduction therapy.
This thematic issue of Current Signal Transduction Therapy aims at featuring the latest
developments of cell signaling research and to encourage design and development of new drug
treatments against cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated to abnormal
signal transduction. This special thematic issue is an effort to provide the recent updates through
good-quality research/review papers including most recent patents filed in the relevant areas.
Nine outstanding reviews articles and research will be published in this issue of 2018. Herein, we
have provided a glimpse of few articles.
S. Menaka and Dr. S. Muralidharan have used Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization
(PSO) as a tool for Harmonic Profile Optimization in Symmetric Multilevel Inverter (MLI) used in
Medical Electronic Equipments. Understanding that High power quality is the very basic important requirement
for MLI used in medical electronic equipment, the authors have highlighted this as an optimization
problem and have worked upon and have provided optimum results.
J. Gnanavadivel et al., understanding the importance of installing high power LED lighting system
for health care applications which lessen equipment maintenance and remove the hazardous material
usage like mercury (Hg), have proposed a work on the design and implementation of high power led
lighting system for health care applications. Knowing that conventional front-end rectifiers produces
line current distortion and trim down the power factor, which results in lowering of power quality for
Light Emitting Diode (LED) drive system, the authors have proposed a comparative analysis between
novel PI controller tuned by fuzzy logic controller with conventional PI controller for modified SEPIC
rectifier to generate the required load voltage along with supply side unity power factor and less
distorted supply current with limited harmonic content for LED lighting in health care applications.
S. Rajasekaran et al. have proposed a work on optimal location identification for FACTS devices to
improve voltage stability with economic consideration using Firefly algorithm. Increasing power demand
forces the power systems to operate at their maximum operation conditions which would lead
the power system into voltage instability. The authors have studied this problem well and has come out
with better results by employing the proposed algorithms testing with four different cases such as normal
case, line outage case, generator outage case and overloading case (140%) and verified that the
proposed method enhanced the voltage stability in IEEE 14, 13, 57 and 118 bus systems.
We would like to express my gratitude to all contributing authors of this issue, who have made
great efforts in under-standing the importance of Real time processing in Control, Computer Vision
and Power electronics under various applications of engineering.