ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X
Volume 25, 42 Issues, 2018
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ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X
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43 Abstract Ahead of Print are available electronically
391 Ahead of Print article(s) are available electronically
Cardio-metabolic complications are multifactorial diseases with different facets, many of which are poorly understood,
although genetics, epigenetics, humoral, habitual and environmental factors may be involved. Moreover,
with the dramatic escalation of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in all segments of the population including adults,
adolescence and children, the incidence of cardio-metabolic disease and related complications will further increase.
Therefore, this special issue puts together a collection of review articles by leading experts in the area to give a
critical appraisal of the current state of knowledge and recent accomplishments as well as challenges and future directions.
The role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in cardiometabolic disease is a among the emerging
themes of scientific interest, with the role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in cardiometabolic disease.
PEDF is a glycoprotein that has been shown to possess anti-thrombotic and anti-fibrotic properties besides its effects
against oxidative stress and inflammatory. Accordingly, in an article featuring in this special issue, Yamagishi
& Matsui underscored the role of PEDF in cardiometabolic diseases and related complications, with particular focus
on diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, renal dysfunction, hepatic insufficiency and disorders affecting the male
and female reproductive systems. The authors discussed the potential clinical relevance of modulating PEDF for the
prevention and management of these cardiometabolic disorders. In another related article, Shinlapawittayatorn et al.
gave profound insights on the effects of obese insulin-resistance, a common risk factor for ischemic heart disease on
ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart. Amongst the pertinent points raised by the authors is whether improving
insulin sensitivity by pharmacological interventions could ameliorate reperfusion induced myocardial injury. Dysfunctional
myocardium is a common complication of diabetes. To expatiate on this problem further, Tarquini et al.
wrote an article about diabetic cardiomyopathy, a pathophysiological condition in which the myocardial interstitium
undergoes alterations resulting in abnormal contractile function. The authors reported that in the early stages of the
disease, diastolic dysfunction is the only abnormality, but systolic dysfunction supervenes at later stages with impaired
left ventricular ejection fraction. Furthermore, the authors underscored a putative correlation between diabetes
and cardiomyopathy, especially in diabetic patients with co-morbid with microvascular complications, and suggested
that this correlation parallels the duration and severity of hyperglycemia.
Besides the heart, the kidney is an important organ for the regulation of extracellular volume and thus blood
pressure. Renal dysfunction is associated with hypertension, proteinuria and kidney failure. Accordingly, novel insights
on structures of the kidney, such as the glomerular filtration barrier, are important. In a related article that
appears in this special issue, Ndisang wrote about the putative cross-talk amongst the major components of the
glomerular filtration barrier including podocytes, endothelial cells and the basement membrane, and how the dynamic
interplay and interaction between these constituents may be fundamental for effective filtration. Furthermore,
the author highlighted some of the challenging issues about the interaction between: (i) glomerular endothelial cells
and podocytes; (ii) glomerular endothelial cells and glomerular basement membrane; (iii) podocytes and glomerular
basement membrane; (iv) the simultaneous interaction among the three components, and suggested that the elucidation
of these multifaceted interactions will pave the way for greater understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney
dysfunction and the formulation of novel therapies for kidney disease. In another related article, Krämer and Weidemann
gave their insights on Fabry disease, pathophysiological condition associated with X-linked lysosomal storage
caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A and intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in
different physiological entities such as the vascular endothelium, nervous system, eyes, skin, heart and kidneys.
A wide variety of drugs are used for the treatment and management of cardiometabolic diseases. For example,
proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are used to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in
patients with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis. In an article, in this special issue, Schremla and Gouni-Berthold gave an in-depth insight on the use of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 to attenuate hypercholesterolemia,
and reported that antibody-derived PCSK9 drugs such as alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab
(Repatha®) can reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 70%. Generally, drugs are routinely reviewed for their
efficacy and safetyly. In this light, Eleftheriadou and co-workers insights on the cardiovascular safety of older and
newer anti-diabetic medications. The authors reported that metformin, a first line drug for the treatment of type 2
diabetes, is also endowed with cardio- protective effects and should be considered the primary choice, while second
line agents such as empagliflozin, liraglutide and semaglutide are reasonable options for patients with cardiovascular
disease, whereas the class of sulfonylureas with the exception of gliclazide should be administered to diabetic
patients co-morbid with other cardiometabolic diseases. In addition, the authors reported that Saxagliptin, alogliptin,
sitagliptin and lixisenatide have been evaluated in cardiovascular safety trials and were shown to have neutral effects
on cardiovascular outcomes, whereas pioglitazone has some cardiovascular benefits. However, Saxagliptin
and alogliptin should be avoided in patients with heart failure. Consistently, in another article featuring in this special
issue, Schmitz and Gouni- Berthold gave clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of volanesorsen for the
treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.
Besides, drugs and other pharmaceutical formulations, dietary fibres and polyphenols are cyto-protective. Accordingly,
the protective effects of dietary fibres and the antioxidant and anti- inflammatory properties of polyphenols
such as curcumin, quercetin, genistein, caffeic acid phenethyl ester were examined by Pittala and co-workers.
They discussed the effects of various naturally occurring polyphenols in the management of metabolic dysfunctions
Collectively, the contributions of the authors of this special issue have underscored to the complexity of cardiometabolic
diseases, highlighting the different facets, the accomplishments to date, the challenges that obscure the
horizon and the prospects for the future, to which we can all look toward with some degree of optimism.
Nanotechnology is growing in prevalence in consumer products and medicine. Most nanomedicine are carriers that are capable of homing in, taken up easily by the target cells and eventually delivering their drug payload to the target sites and some have smart designs that release the payload according to designed stimuli. However, while there are many advantages offered through bionanotechnology, there are potential unintended consequences especially on the non-targeted cells remain a problem of toxicity of these very small particles. This special issue describes a series of the latest most exciting research in the fields of nano medicine covering cancer and anti-microbial applications and balanced with some nanotoxiological studies covering nano biology and more realistic nano materials testing platforms.
Growing evidence supports a primary role of inflammatory reactions, both acute and chronic, in the development and progression of the main human diseases. The redoxmediated pathophysiological mechanisms are crucial in the evolution of various diseases, in which inflammation is involved. In this theme issue we would like to consider the role of inflammation and redox balance in the genesis and worsening of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Reviews by scientists, with basic and clinical background, will contribute to give a comprehensive picture of the inflammation- and redox-mediated pathogenesis of the diseases and an up-to-date scenario of therapeutic approaches.
This mini theme issue will consider some classes of bioactive natural products and their role in the medicinal chemistry. Many studies have pointed out new bioactivities for well-known natural products, showing that not only” new chemical entities” obtained by natural sources but also known and “old” natural products can be a valuable source of new therapeutic agents. In the issue triterpene, sesquiterpene, coumarins, stilbenoids, and also phenolics from Cannabis will be considered focusing on both natural and
synthetic (or semisynthetic) compounds, their bioactivity and their potential importance in the field of medicinal chemistry.
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