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ISSN (Print): 1385-2728
ISSN (Online): 1875-5348
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Special Issue Submission
Synthesis of polymers catalyzed by organic or organometallic compounds
Guest Editor(s): Dai Shengyu
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Protein Kinases and Their Inhibitors
Current Enzyme Inhibition, Volume 13, Number 2
Guest Editor(s): Satya P. Gupta
"Current Enzyme Inhibition is an important review journal that describes recent developments in enzyme inhibition studies and is of great value to pharmaceutical and medicinal chemists."
Richard B. Silverman
Northwestern Univ., USA
"We are very satisfied by the services of Bentham Science Publishers; due to which we publish the majority of our papers with you.
(Faculty of Pharmacy, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania)
2 Abstract Ahead of Print are available electronically
19 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Heteroatom Bond-forming Reactions under Greener
The Chemistry of Allenes
Nowadays, environmental pollution/deterioration and greenhouse effect are becoming increasingly prominent, primarily due
to the dependence and overuse of fossil source [1, 2]. As a result, the development of green and sustainable approaches has
become a particularly important theme in recent years [3-5]. Organic synthesis is a versatile tool in the design and creation of
desirable scaffolding molecules, while the processes of which typically involves toxic and non-renewable starting materials as
well as the formation of waste or by-products . Biomass, on the other hand, is considered as the most abundant organic
carbon resource for producing liquid fuels and value-added chemicals through an array of cascade chemocatalytic reactions [7-
10]. The exploration of robust and green technologies is accordingly being deemed to be one of the vital and promising means
for biomass valorization and relevant organic transformations.
This thematic issue thereby aims to survey the development of green technologies for catalytic upgrading of biomass
feedstocks, and provides a glimpse into successful examples in this research area. Five eminent research groups in the field of
biomass valorization have kindly accepted our invitation to participate in this special issue by providing an overview on the
recent advances on selected topics briefly listed as follows:
Dr. Chen et al. in “Lignin Reactions and Structural Alternations under Typical Biomass Pretreatment Methods” introduce
typical pretreatment methods such as hydrothermal pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment, biodegradation, and oxidative
pretreatment, with their corresponding impacts on the lignin structures and reactions .
Dr. Lin et al. in “Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into Furanyl Diols”
comprehensively summarize the studies on the chemoselective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into furanyl diols in
terms of different H-donors, including molecular H2, alcohols, formic acid and other alternative H-donors, and also provide
future research direction on the production of furanyl diols .
Dr. Li et al. in “Alcohol-mediated Reduction of Biomass-derived Furanic Aldehydes via Catalytic Hydrogen Transfer”
depict alcohol-mediated reduction of biomass-derived furanic aldehydes via catalytic hydrogen transfer, also with attention on
the representative reaction mechanisms and selective control of product distribution .
Dr. Liu et al. in “Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biomass-derived Polyhydric Compounds to C2–C3 Small-molecule Polyols: A
review” describe the catalysts and catalysis for selective hydrogenolysis of these polyhydric compounds to C2–C3 polyols, and
outline the reaction pathways with the state-of-the-art technologies for the target polyol formation based on the C3, C5, and C6
polyhydric alcohol hydrogenolysis .
Dr. Yang et al. in “Chemo-catalytic Esterification and Transesterification over Organic Polymer-based Catalysts for
Biodiesel Synthesis” discuss catalytic valorization of sustainable feedstocks into biodiesel via transesterification and
esterification reactions mediated by functionalized organic polymers-based catalysts, with special emphasis on the synthetic
routes to the versatile organic polymers-based catalytic materials .
As Guest Editors, we would like to appreciate all the authors for their valuable contributions and all the referees for their
excellent work in reviewing the submitted manuscripts.
We are also grateful to the Editor-in-Chief Prof. György Keglevich and the editorial manager Ms. Sanober Maqbool for
their kind support in preparing this thematic issue.
Waste-to-valuable products are being considered as one of the best solutions to convert the waste biomass into green and
environment-friendly products. The wide utilization of waste biomass as a potential source of fuels, power, recycled materials,
valuable chemicals are well recognized globally. The waste driven fuels are used in all sectors of society for production of
electricity, transport fuel, heating and cooling source, and for industrial processes. These fuels not only solve the waste disposal
issues but also generate enormous economic and environmental benefits. They are promising alternatives due to their
renewable, sustainable and eco-friendly features. However, there are multiple challenges in conversion and efficient utilization
of waste biomass into sustainable energy and fuels .
The purpose of the special issue, titled “Waste Biomass Utilization for Value-added Green Products” is to focus on the best
possible ways to convert the waste biomass into value added and renewable products with an ambition to highlight the recent
trends targeting the challenges and opportunities in this area. Renowned researchers have accepted our invitation to contribute
their articles on the below subtopics;
Conversion/Utilization of Waste Biomass Feedstocks into Fuels: The aspects of discovery and utilization of different waste
biomass feedstocks for generation of various fuels. The examples of such waste biomass to fuels systems include the bioalcohols,
biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, and pyrolysis oils [2, 3]. The issue will cover a wide range of feedstock and
conventional and new production methods including the challenges and prospects. In the last few decades, due to the everincreasing
exploitation of fossil fuels, there is a significant emphasis and demand on exploring and developing alternative, costeffective,
and non-food feedstocks or waste biomass sources for producing fuels and value-added products .
Micro-Algae and Macro-Algae Based Biofuels: In the last few decades, there has been tremendous research on the
utilization of micro and macro algae for biofuels production and increasing the process efficiency and quality of the products
. Despite all these efforts and investment, there remain many challenges and scope for improvement in this area before
potential commercialization of this technology worldwide. Multiple benefits are sought through these processes including biowaste
treatment, production of clean fuels and CO2 capturing for huge environmental and economic benefits. Contributions
under this subtopic would be preferred covering both the scientific and engineering aspects of algae biofuels.
Development of Advanced Catalysts for Biofuels: The role of catalysts is critical not only in the conversion process of
biofuels systems but also making the overall process more efficient, less energy intensive and economically feasible. However,
the primary challenge with the use of catalysts is huge cost. Recently, waste biomass-based catalysts such as biochar and
natural minerals like natural zeolite are utilized instead of costly commercial catalysts . Therefore, this subtopic would cover
how such cheap and effective catalysts could be developed for various biofuels systems such as transesterification (biodiesel),
anaerobic digestion (biogas), fermentation (bio-alcohols) and bio-hydrogen .
State-of-the-art Cost-Effective Bioenergy Production Technologies: This subtopic would cover the state-of-the-art and costeffective
bioenergy production technologies such as pyrolysis, supercritical water reforming, gasification, anaerobic digestion,
torrefaction, and liquid phase processing . Currently, one of the most limiting factors of bioenergy production technologies is
the high capital/ operational cost or low profitability. New ideas and paradigm will be gathered to contribute solving this issue
through this special issue. A primary emphasis would be given to such contributions which would cover the scientific aspects of
process and products chemistry.
Use of Waste and Non-profitable Natural Resources for Optimization of Biofuel Production: This subtopic would cover the
utilization of waste and non-profitable natural resources such as lands, water, and biochar, natural minerals in optimizing the
first and second generation biofuels such as bioalcohols (ethanol or methanol), biomethanation and biodiesel.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Value-Added Green Products: This subtopic would cover the aspects of both biomass waste
utilization and value-added green products in the form of fuels and energy [8,9]. The established or new models of LCA should
be used for detailed technical, economic and environmental aspects of these processes and products, crucial before moving
towards commercialization. In addition, the engineering design for feedstock processing and biofuel production plants would be
covered under this subtopic.
Integration of Waste to Energy Technologies: This subtopic would cover the various waste to energy and waste-based
biorefineries systems in an integrated way. The ultimate goal is to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly
systems and products. The examples of such systems include the organic waste biorefinery, agricultural and forestry residues
biorefinery . Contributors are encouraged to cover the various sources of municipal and industrial waste which could be
potentially utilized for energy, fuels, heat, and chemicals production.
As Guest Editors we would like to thank all the authors for their precious contributions and all the reviewers for their
excellent work in evaluating the submitted manuscripts. We also wish to thank the Editor in Chief, Prof. György Keglevich and
the Editorial Manager Ms. Sanober Maqbool for their kind support in preparing this Special Issue.
In the last few decades, catalyzed organic and bioorganic reactions have attracted much attention in chemical and
pharmaceutical researches [1, 2]. Recently, the design of novel catalysts and enzymes is in much demand to circumvent certain
intractable synthetic problems [3-6].
In this light, the modeling of catalytic procedures seems to be necessary and also important in the synthesis of emerging
classes of organic compounds that are becoming the targets of molecular and biomedical researches [7-10].
Strictly speaking, the combination of computational approaches with experimental methods to model and interpret the
mechanistic features of catalytic and enzymatic organic reactions provides more detailed information about the structure,
bonding, stereochemistry and spectroscopic properties of compounds through the reaction path and consequently, leads to the
new opportunities for production of novel chemicals and discovery of useful drugs [10-11].
In this context, the main goal of this thematic issue is to present comprehensive joint experimental and computational
researches set in the field of catalytic organic synthesis and their rational mechanistical underpinning and the conjunction of
experimental features of catalytic and enzymatic reactions with computational approaches will be covered.
This thematic issue contains 3 reviews, written by highly knowledgeable teams with tremendous amount of experience in
the field of computational organic chemistry, which are discussed as follows:
The first article of this special issue by Laura Orian and her coworkers from the University of Padova describes the essential
synthetic and reactivity aspects of organoselenides in a rational combination with the results of computational studies. In this
line, reactivity of the Se-Se bond and the redox properties of selenium are discussed to produce diselenides compounds for the
catalysis of many organic reactions and along with its enzymatic application as glutathione peroxidase, inspiring novel
elements for rational catalyst, enzymes and drug design.
The second review is provided by Ana María Mendoza-Wilson and her colleague on chemical structure and reactivity of
procyanidins. Clearly speaking, in this review, the recent advances of experimental and computational studies on the potential
of procyanidins as metalloproteinases inhibitors were investigated. In the last review article of this special issue by Tayebeh
Hosseinnejad and Majid M. Heravi and their co-worker, Hantzsch dihydropyridines synthesis and their biological activities and
also their applications in asymmetric transfer hydrogenation are investigated from the combined experimental and computational
As a result, the thematic issue contains the reviews of emerging and cutting edge researches in the field of computational
chemistry and modeling and hopefully attracts substantial attentions and stirs up the interest of readers in the related research
community. Finally, I would like to acknowledge all the contributing authors, reviewers and the Editorial Office for their
consistent efforts in bringing out this special issue.
Solid Phase Organic Synthesis (SPOS) was first introduced for peptide synthesis and is pioneered by R. B. Merrifield,
which later earned him a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1984 [1, 2]. The solid-phase synthesis carries many advantages over
classical solution-phase synthetic methods which may include purification of products by simple filtration of the polymer
matrix , automatability , easy handling, low moisture susceptibility , minimum side reaction, polymerization-free due
to site-isolation of polymer beads  and recyclability of the polymer matrix for repeated useage [7, 8]; thereby adding the
‘green’ credentials of the whole processes.
Earlier, SPOS mainly refers to a multi-step organic synthesis using a polymer-bound reagent. However, these days, the
single step organic synthesis using polymer and/ or other solid catalysts/ reagents is also included in SPOS domain.
In recent years, polymer-bound reagents/ catalysts have received major attention from industry and academia mainly due to
their easy handling, separation, and reusability [9-12]. In addition, as polymeric reagents/catalyst can be recycled and reused,
they can be used in an excess amount to drive the reaction faster.
In this special issue, different reviews related to SPOS have been contributed by experts in these fields of research:
In the paper by Prof. Ilia and co-worker entitled “Solid-Phase Synthesis of Phosphorus Derivatives”, different approached
for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides, nucleobases, nucleoside, phosphates and phosphonates are extensively
Prof. Ohtaka in the paper “Transition-Metal Nanoparticles Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions in Water” reports
the most important advances in Carbon-Carbon bond formation reactions such as Suzuki coupling, Heck reaction, Sonogashira
coupling, Stille coupling, Hiyama coupling and Ullmann coupling catalyzed by different transition metal nanoparticles.
The final contribution to this special issue is provided by Rokhum et al. This review entitled “Recent Application of
Polystyrene-Supported Triphenylphosphine in Solid Phase Organic Synthesis” covers several applications of polymer-bound
triphenylphosphine as a catalyst as well as a regent in different chemical transformations such as Henry reaction, Wittig
reaction, Mitsunobu reaction, esterification reaction, and cross-coupling reaction.
As Guest Editors we would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors who have kindly agreed to our invitation
and contributed a review for this special issue. We also wish to thank all the reviewers for their support in evaluating the
We sincerely thank the Editor-in-Chief, Prof. György Keglevich and the Editorial Manager Ms. Sanober Maqbool for their
constant support in the successful publication of this special issue. It has been a great pleasure to work with Bentham Science
In the last decades important challenges have been overcome due to the comprehension of the
supramolecular organic chemistry. Non-covalent interactions and aggregation properties often play a
central role in the development of new bioactive compounds, carriers systems and delivery devices as well
as in the improvement of natural products as starting materials for innovative uses, including tissue
engineering and medicine. In many cases different techniques are required to characterize newly formed
supramolecular systems in term of dimension, morphology, microviscosity and stability, or to point out the
aggregation tendency of the investigated molecules.
Promising strategies are also based on the formation of aggregates or the inclusion of molecules into
carrier systems for new targets; the characterization of nanoparticles; the use of the therapeutic polymers;
the synthesis of molecules mimicking natural compounds; the applications of traditional or modern
techniques to highlight aggregation properties.
The aim of this special issue is to report the recent advances in topic aspects of the supramolecular organic
chemistry in a large variety of applications involving self-assembly process and including all cases in which
the supramolecular behavior represents the relevant key for future perspectives in the scientific research.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as porous coordination polymers (PCPs), are
constructed from the coordination of metal ions or metal clusters with organic ligands. MOF
studies have emerged as one of the most important topics in chemistry and materials science in
the past two decades. The porosities of MOF materials can be systematically tuned by judicious
selection of molecular building blocks, and a variety of functional sites/groups can be introduced
into metal ions/clusters, organic linkers, or pore spaces through pre-designing or post-synthetic
approaches. These unique advantages enable MOFs to be used as a highly versatile and tunable
platform for various applications in gas storage and separation, chemical sensing, catalysis, and
biomedicine. MOFs have some intrinsic advantages to develop as a new class of catalytic
materials, such as their ultra-high surface areas (up to 7000 m2
/g), tunable pore sizes/shapes, and
easily immobilized catalytic active centers into metal nodes or organic linkers. Also, some
catalytically active molecules or nanoparticles could be encapsulated into the cavities of MOFs.
These attractive features have led to a rapidly growing number of MOFs for heterogeneous
catalysis. The purpose of this thematic issue is to summarize and highlight the advanced
development of MOFs and their emerging applications in organic chemistry related fields. The
topic of this issue will cover several fields that be contributed from experts from organic
chemists, inorganic chemists and materials scientists: (1) The advanced development of MOFs,
such as novel synthetic approach, post-synthesis, and In situ growth mechanism studies of
MOFs; (2) Emerging and promising applications of MOFs, such as light hydrocarbon separation,
catalytic organic transformation, photocatalysis, sensing of small molecules, bioimaging and
Inflammation results from a process in response to noxious stimuli in from tissues by pathogenic
agent and / or irritated or damaged cells from an inflammatory immune response involving the
immune cells, blood vessels and molecular inflammatory mediators .
Inflammatory diseases may be provided by an acute or chronic phase. In the acute phase we have
an innate immune response by characterized flush appearance, heat and increasing the entry into
service on site . In contrast, the chronic phase is from persistent acute inflammation by the
recruitment of monocytes, leukocytes and macrophages as well as proinflammatory cytokines.
At this stage one can achieve with tissue destruction and fibrosis necrosis site . Chronic
inflammation may lead to a number of diseases such as asthma , rheumatoid arthritis ,
atherosclerosis , intestinal diseases , among others.
The objective for this thematic issue is to report recent studies about different approaches in drug
discovery, which comprises synthesis, semi-synthesis, searches for new targets, natural products,
evaluation of biological activities, and/or theoretical approaches as structure-based approaches,
SAR, QSAR, docking and several cheminformatics methods , for investigation and selection
of new lead molecules. These efforts involve several studies to aid the drug discovery of new
options of treatment of inflammatory diseases.
I propose you a revision of the state of the art in the field nanotechnology-organic chemistry.
This a very actual, wide and open area of research that is the joint of many different research
fields. Due to this fact, there is not a book or a thematic issue that gives its state of the art. Base
on this I believe that this area needs thematic issue like this. I propose to include the study of the
organic molecules that are used in the last years for the modification of surfaces (metallic or not:
mainly silicon, organic substrates as cellulose, and carbon) and the main carriers that are used in
the delivery of actives compounds, from lipid nanoparticles to nanofibres. Moreover I propose to
include a chapter focused on the delivery of antitumoral actives.
Biopolymer means the polymers which are produced in a natural way by living species. In general their
molecular structures are composed of the units of saccharides, nucleic acids and also different additional
chemical side chains contributing to their consequences. The utilization of the biopolymers by Humans
comes under the category of food, clothing and furniture. On the other side if we talk about the industrial
applications of biopolymers, then it is found that fossil fuels are the substantial origin for the manufacture
of the commercial products for example, plastics which is presently used at very high scale. Some of the
biopolymers examples are such as Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, DNA, RNA, Nucleic acids, Peptides,
Polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose etc.). There are basically four main classifications of
biopolymers available considering both natural and synthetic polymers carbohydrate based biopolymer,
starch based biopolymer, biopolymers based on synthetic materials and cellulose based biopolymers. In
this issue we are mainly focusing on the history and origination of the biopolymers, their classifications
and biopolymer based formulations such as Biocomposites etc.. We will also discuss about the various
applications of these biopolymer formulations in the field of biomedical engineering and industrial fields.
Sugar based polymers, such as polylactides, naturally degenerate in the human body without producing
any harmful side effects. Polylactides are generally used as surgical implants. Starch based biopolymers
can be used for creating conventional plastic by extruding and injection molding. Biopolymers based on
synthetic are used to manufacture substrate mats. Cellulose based biopolymers, such as cellophane, are
used as a packaging material.
In the Thematic Issue “Transformation of POPs in the environment" the selected organic
micropollutants listed by Stockholm convention as well as micropollutants listed in some other
international and national law legislations will be described. There will also be characterized
some other organic micropollutants that are not listed in current legislations but they cause
hazard for health and people life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic,
mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated
dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs,
selected insecticides and pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogenated
compounds (determination as AOX) and by-products of water treatment, di-2-
ethylocsylophtalans DEHP, nonylphenols NPE and ethoxylated of nonylphenols compounds
NPEO and some surfactants, such as linear alkylo benzosulphonans LAS. Moreover, the current
topic is the presence in the environment emerging organic contaminants as well as biologically
active substances so called as endocrine disrupting compounds such as: pharmaceutics and
cosmetics remains and bactericidal compounds (personal care products PCP), flame retardants
Frs and preservatives and impregnates.
Due to their essential roles in photosynthesis, chlorophylls are omnipresent from photosynthetic
prokaryotes to higher plants, being considered the most important pigments on Earth. Such vital
function derives from its structure, chlorophylls can absorb light quanta effectively, but also they
can release and take up electrons reversibly. Chlorophylls are cyclic tetrapyrroles carrying a
characteristic isocyclic five-membered ring that are functional in light-harvesting or in charge
separation in photosynthesis. The general term ‘chlorophylls’ includes several kinds of
chlorophyll structures depending of the unsaturation degrees of the macrocycle. Fully
unsaturated porphyrin macrocycle is present in c-type chlorophylls of chromophyte algae and
some prokaryotes. The chlorin system shows a saturated bond between C17-18 and it is present
for example in the chlorophylls a and b of oxygenic organism and in some bacteria. Finally, the
bacteriochlorin type exhibits two saturated bonds at C7-8 and C17-18, and it has been described
in bacteriochlorophylls of anoxygenic bacteria. During the last year, mass spectrometry has been
used successfully to obtain information of the structural configuration of the different
chlorophylls, not only related with identification and characterization but also providing insights
of the mechanism of reaction. The present theme issue will review the recent developments in
the field of mass spectrometry covering different chlorophyll structures.
It has become the scientific focus to advance the synthesis methods and the analysis techniques
for organic materials because of these materials’ importance in food, pharmaceutical and medical
industries. A good understanding of the properties of a material (e.g., composition, chirality,
structure, thermal stability and phase transformation) is crucial for food processing and safety,
drug design and manufacturing and medical applications. Thus there’s an increasing demand for
a wide range of modern characterisation techniques.
This proposed thematic issue will try to present the latest advances, trends and challenges in
modern synthesis methods and analysis techniques by collecting the review articles on some
emerging techniques (e.g., 3D printing, small angle X-ray scattering) as well as some more
traditional techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and Xray
diffraction). It will also highlight some in-situ monitoring techniques (e.g., the simultaneous
X-ray diffraction- differential scanning calorimetry technique for the characterization of solid
Chitosan, a natural polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, is the only cationic
polysaccharide in nature. Chitosan could be chemical modified by different ways, such as
oligomerization, alkylation, acylation, quternization, hydroxyalkylation, carboxyalkylation,
thiolation, sulfation, phosphorylation, enzymatic modifications and graft copolymerization along
with many assorted modifications. Then many derivates of chitosan could be obtained. Chitosan
and its derivates show excellent biological qualities: they are biocompatible, biodegradable,
mucoadhesive and non-toxic, and exhibit antimicrobial, antiviral gene transfection and
immunoadjuvant properties. Chitosan and its derivates have a variety of promising applications
in medicine and pharmaceutics and are presently considered as a novel carrier material in drug
delivery systems, gene therapy, tissue engineering scaffold, wound healing, antibacterial, fat
binder, hemostatic agent, hypocholesterolemic effect as indicated by the large number of studies
published over the last few years. They can be easily processed in diverse forms, such as
membranes, microparticles/nanoparticles, fibres, hydrogels or sponges, and allowing the design
of a variety of medical and pharmacological devices adaptable to end purposes. In this special
issue, I’ll bring together a number of top-ranked international scientists to discuss the recent
advances about the strategies for design, synthesis, functionalization and applications of chitosan
and its derivates for applications in medical materials. This special issue is aiming for a broad
audience of readers in the field of material sciences, chemistry, medicine and pharmaceutics.
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