Volume overload is the most common complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, being directly related to numerous complications including resistant hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, congestive heart failure or arterial stiffness, among others. Therefore, volume overload is now considered an important risk factor for hard outcomes, like all-cause or cardiovascular mortality.
Relying solely on clinical examination for assessing volume overload in ESRD patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Numerous efforts have been made to identify new methods that could objectively assess volume status; however, each of them has important limitations. This review aims to discuss the most frequently used of these methods (biomarkers, inferior vena cava assessment, lung ultrasonography, bioimpedance analysis and blood volume monitoring) and to compare the advantage of each method vs the overall/clinical strategy.
Keywords: dialysis, volume overload, management, lung ultrasonography, bioimpedance, biomarkers
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