Background: Gracilaria has been shown to be an important source of marine bioactive natural biomaterials and compounds. No previous studies have been carried out to examine the biochemical and pharmaceutical activates of Gracilaria from Suez Canal of Egypt as an excellent source for bioactive compounds.
Methods: Different advanced experimental models and analytical techniques such as cytotoxicity, total antioxidant capacity, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory profiling were applied. The phytochemical analysis of different constituents was also carried out.
Results: The mineral analysis revealed the presence of copper (188.3 ppm) and iron (10.07 ppm) in addition to a remarkable wealth of selenium and sulfur contents giving up to 36% of its dry mass. The elemental analysis showed high contents of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The GC-MS profiling showed varieties of different bioactive compounds such as fatty acids, different types of carotenoids in addition to pigments, alkaloids, steroids. Many other compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities …etc. were identified. The cytotoxicity activity of Gracilaria marine extract was very effective against cancerous cell lines and showed high ability as potent antitumor due their bioactive constituents. Specialized screening assays using two anticancer experimental models, i.e., PTK and SKH1 revealed 77.88 % and 84.50 % inhibition anticancer activity; respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities investigated using four different experimental models, i.e., COX1, COX2, IL6 and TNF resulted in 68%, 81.76%, 56.02 and 78.43 % inhibition; respectively. Moreover, Gracilaria extracts showed potent anti-Alzheimer with all concentrations.
Conclusion: Gracilaria proved to be a multi-product source of marine natural products for different biotechnological applications.