Background: The discovery of Sodium—Glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors had rewritten the treatment of diabetes mellitus with an impressive fall in incidence of death and associated complications.
Introduction: The SGLT2 inhibitors by inhibiting the SGLT2 in the proximal nephron, helps in reducing the reabsorption of approximately 90% of the filtered glucose and increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE).
Method: The literature related to SGLT2 inhibitors has been thoroughly explored from various available public domains and reviewed extensively for this article. Detailed and updated information related to SGLT2 inhibitors with a major focus on the recently approved Ertuglifolzin is structured in this review.
Result: Present review is an effort in understanding the management of diabetes mellitus over the past few decades with a special focus on role of SGLT2 receptor in the causes of and therapeutic and preventive strategies for diabetes mellitus. Pragmatic placement of the currently available Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, and Empagliflozin as oral anti-diabetic agents has been done. Well accommodated stereochemistry and a high docking score of Ertugliflozin in ligand receptor simulation studies attributes to its high potency.
Conclusion:This review highlights the unique mechanism of SGLT2 Inhibitors coupled with pleiotropic benefits on weight and blood pressure, which make it an attractive choice of therapy to diabetic patients, not controlled by other medications.