Background: Olive oil and fruits are essential components of Mediterranean diets. Olive tree is a prevalent plant species and one of the important cultivated crops of Mediterranean region. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of olive in achieving glucose homeostasis through the inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes using in-vitro models and also determine the chemical composition of olive oil by GC/MS.
Methods: The chemical composition of olive oil by was determined by GC/MS and its antidiabetic activity was assessed through inhibition α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes in in-vitro models.
Results: The olive oil analysis by GC/MS yielded 41 constituents amounting to 98.21% of total oil composition. Oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester (19.34%), arachidonic acid (11.25%), oleic acid (6.07%), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (9.50%), pentadecanoic acid (5.53%), palmitic acid (3.86%), and linoleic acid (3.13%) were the major components of the Olive oil. The olive oil and extract produces dose dependent inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The IC50 values for olive oil, olive extract and acarbose were found as 210.50±4.76, 121.8±3.18, and 91.04±2.16 µg/mL, respectively against α-amylase enzyme. The IC50 values for Olive oil, extract and acarbose were found as 204.3±3.41, 165.04±5.27 and 116.5±2.17 µg/mL, respectively against α-glucosidase enzyme.
Conclusion: The result of this study concluded that Olive oil having oleic acid and its ester derivatives as major constituents, the study findings also confirm the traditional claim of olive use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.