The reactions involving the formation of C-O bond using metal as a catalyst
have emerged to be one of the most influential reactions for the synthesis of heterocycles
in modern organic chemistry. Catalysis by metals offers diverse opportunities to invent
new organic reactions with a promising range of selectivities such as chemoselectivity,
regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity. The methodologies used earlier
for synthesis were less approachable to the organic chemist because of their high cost,
highly specified instrumentation and inconvenient methods. For both stereoselective and
regioselective formation of five-membered O-containing heterocycles, cyclic reactions
that are metal and non-metal-catalyzed have known to be very efficient. The present review
article covers the applications of metal and non-metal as a catalyst for the synthesis
of five-membered O-containing heterocycles.
Keywords: Catalysis, heterocycles, oxygen, furans, dioxolanes, synthesis.
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