Introduction: Obesity shows a multifactorial disease and presents a serious public health problem, with an alarming epidemic character. According to NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) from 2015 to 2016, 39.6% of American adults and 18.5% of young people were obese and 7.7% of adults and 5.6% of young people had severe obesity. Brazil ranks fifth in the world ranking, with about 18 million people reaching up to 70 million overweight individuals. Despite short-term weight loss with diet and exercise, weight regain continues to be a concern. Anti-obesity drugs such as Sibutramine (SIB), Phentermine (PHEN), Fenproporex (FEN), Mazindol (MAZ), Amfepramone (AMFE) and Orlistat (ORL) may play a role in weight reduction in patients whose condition is refractory to non- and maintenance of weight loss.
Objective: A systematic review followed by a meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials over the past five years to explore the efficacy and safety of anorexigenic drugs for weight reduction and consequent treatment of obesity.
Methods: The search strategy in MEDLINE / Pubmed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier), Scopus (Elsevier), OneFile (Gale) followed the following steps: - search for mesh terms (Sibutramine, Phentermine, Fenproporex, Mazindol, Amfepramone , Orlistat, Weight loss, Safety), and the use of booleans "and" between mesh terms and "or" among historical findings.
Results: It was observed that in the last five years of randomized studies no significant general complications were found, with only 5.7%. The mean overall weight loss was 6.18 (± 2.8) kg in the mean time of 12 months. The overall success rate among these drugs was 80.18%. The p-value values did not present a significant statistical difference, being p <0.05 within each drug group analyzed, for both weight and success rates.
Conclusion: The scientific findings of randomized studies on the use of anorexigenic drugs to treat obesity have shown safety and efficiency in the last five years, with a reasonable weight loss and no significant complications.