Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by selective autoimmune destruction of pancreatic b-cells, resulting in insulin deficiency and associated autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and gastritis, can coexist in patients with type 1 DM. These disorders are characterized by the presence of antibodies against tissue transglutaminase, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), as well as antibodies against gastric parietal cells. Cross-sectional studies have reported that the risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with type-1 DM is two- to threefold higher than in the general population. However, there are a few studies in the literature investigating the relationship between malignancy and type-1 DM, and it has been shown that type-1 DM does not increase thyroid cancer. Furthermore, there is a lot of controversy regarding the role of thyroid autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. Here we present a type-1 DM patient diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer.
Case report: Herein, we aimed to present a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with type-1 DM and subsequently diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Thyroid ultrasound revealed a 10×12×18 mm hypoechoic irregular edges nodule with macrocalcification and microcalcification foci in the left lobe and pathological lymph nodes without echogenic hilus were detected at the fourth level of the left cervical chain. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from nodule was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy, bilateral central lymph node dissection, and left neck dissection (level II to IV) were performed. Pathological examination revealed a 1.4× 0.9 cm diameter papillary carcinoma located in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with 13 lymph node metastases
Conclusion: Patients with type 1 DM should be examined for thyroid diseases, and patients with suspected thyroid disease should be evaluated with a thyroid ultrasound. Type 1 DM and PTC coexistence albeit very rare; It should be known that type 1 diabetes can be seen together with thyroid cancer.