Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a common autoimmune disorder that often presents in children. In these patients, diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the most common and serious acute complications associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, limited studies are conducted in Ethiopia.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess patient-related characteristics and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis, and their relative difference among children with newly diagnosed and previously known type-I diabetes mellitus.
Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 63 type-1 diabetes patients admitted for ketoacidosis at Jimma university medical center, a tertiary hospital. Data was collected using a checklist, and entered into Epidata 22.214.171.124 and analyzed using STATA 13.0. Descriptive statistics was performed; Mann-Whitney and Chi-square test statistics were employed for comparison.
Result: Of the total, 39 were newly diagnosed type-I diabetes patients. Polydipsia and Polyuria (each in 74.6%) were the predominant symptoms at presentation. ketoacidosis precipitants were undocumented in the majority of the patients (53.97%). Mean (±SD) Random blood sugar was 434.05 (±117.62)mg/dl. Ketoacidosis was mild in severity in 63.49%. Family history of diabetes, unknown precipitants and the first episode of ketoacidosis were significantly different among the new and known type-I diabetes patients. No mortality was documented.
Conclusion: The observed patient characteristics are typical of those reported in many studies and standard resources. Despite no mortality was documented, the need for early diagnosis and management should not be overlooked. Further study, with large sample size, is recommended to point-out the real characteristics difference among new and known type-I diabetes mellitus patients admitted for ketoacidosis.