Objectives: People with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are more likely to develop a range of rheumatological
and musculoskeletal symptoms (RMS), and experience both chronic and widespread pain,
compared with the general population. However, these symptoms are not commonly acknowledged by
researchers, which hampers our understanding of the impact on this population. Since exercise is a key
lifestyle management strategy for T2D and participation levels are typically low, understanding the potential
impact of RMS on exercise participation is critical. The aim of this review is to summarise the
literature regarding the prevalence and pathophysiology of RMS in T2D, the evidence for the benefits
and risks associated with exercise on RMS, and the currently available tools for the reporting of RMS
in both research studies and community settings.
Methods: A narrative review.
Results: There are numerous exercise trials in T2D, but few have sufficiently reported pain-related adverse
events and even fewer have investigated the effects of exercise on RMS and chronic pain.
Discussion: Recommendations for future research are provided.