Background: In Wireless Sensor Networks, Localization is the most dynamic field for research. The data extracted from the sensor nodes that carries physical location information is very much helpful in WSNs as it is useful in major applications such as for the purpose of monitoring of any environment, tracking and for the detection purpose. Localization is known as the estimation of unknown node locations and its positions by communicating through localized nodes as well as unlocalized nodes.
Objective: The aim of this study is to present classification of various localization algorithms and to compare them.
Methods: The prime consideration is to know that how localization affects the network lifetime and how these algorithms work for increasing the lifetime of a network in a severe.
Results: This paper also aims for finding the position of the node with respect to range based, anchor based and distributed localization techniques for harsh environments. Additionally this paper also features the concern that occurs with these localization techniques.
Conclusion: The technique that gives highly accurate location coordinates and having less hardware cost is distributed RSSI based localization algorithm.