Background: Effective 3D-localization in mobile underwater sensor networks is still an active research topic. Due to sparse characteristic of underwater sensor networks, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles) with precise positioning abilities will benefit to cooperative localization. It has important significance to study accurate localization methods.
Methods: In this paper, a cooperative and distributed 3D-localization algorithm for sparse underwater sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm combines with the advantages of both recursive location estimation of reference nodes and outstanding self-positioning ability of mobile AUV. Moreover, our design utilizes MMSE (Minimum Mean Squared Error) based recursive location estimation method in 2D horizontal plane projected from 3D region, and then revises positions of un-localized sensor nodes through multiple measurements of Time of Arrival (ToA) with mobile AUVs.
Results: Simulation results verify that the proposed cooperative 3D-localization scheme can improve performance in terms of localization coverage ratio, average localization error and localization confidence level.
Conclusion: The research can improve localization accuracy and coverage ratio for whole underwater sensor networks.