Background: Graphene-Titanium dioxide nano-composite forms a very promising material
in the field of photo-electrochemical research.
Methods: In this study, a novel environment-friendly synthesis method was developed to produce
well-distributed anatase nano-titanium dioxide spherical particles on the surface of graphene sheets.
This novel method has great advantages over previously developed methods of producing graphenetitanium
dioxide nanocomposites (GTNCs). High calcination temperature 650°C was used in the
preparation of nano titanium dioxide, and chemical exfoliation for graphene synthesis and GTNC
was performed by our novel method of depositing titanium dioxide nanoparticles on graphene sheets
using a Y-shaped micro-reactor under a controlled pumping rate with minimal use of chemicals.
Results: The physiochemical and crystallographic properties of the GTNC were confirmed by TEM,
XRD, FTIR and EDX measurements, confirming process repeatability. Spherical nano-titanium dioxide
was produced in the anatase phase with very high crystallinity and small particle diameters
ranging from 9 nm to 25 nm, also the as prepared graphene (RGO) exhibited minimal flake folding
and a high carbon content of 81.28% with a low oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratio of 0.172 and GTNCs
produced by our novel method had a superior loading content, a homogeneous distribution and a
96.6% higher content of titanium dioxide particles on the graphene sheets compared with GTNCs
prepared with the one-pot method.
Conclusion: For its photoelectrochemical properties, chronoamperometry showed that GTNC sample
(2) had a higher peak current of 60 μA compared with that of GTNC sample (1), which indicates
that the separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs are better in the case of GTNC sample (2) and
according to the LSV results, the generation of photocurrent in the samples can be observed through
multiple on-off cycles, which indicates that the electrodes are stable and that the photocurrent is quite