Reserpine Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer Cells through Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Failure

Author(s): Manjula Devi Ramamoorthy, Ashok Kumar, Mahesh Ayyavu, Kannan Narayanan Dhiraviam*.

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents)

Volume 18 , Issue 9 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Reserpine, an indole alkaloid commonly used for hypertension, is found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina. Although the root extract has been used for the treatment of cancer, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer activity on hormonal independent prostate cancer remains elusive.

Methods: we evaluated the cytotoxicity of reserpine and other indole alkaloids, yohimbine and ajmaline on Prostate Cancer cells (PC3) using MTT assay. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis using a combination of techniques including acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, high content imaging of Annexin V-FITC staining, flow cytometric quantification of the mitochondrial membrane potential and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and cell cycle analysis.

Results: Our results indicate that reserpine inhibits DNA synthesis by arresting the cells at the G2 phase and showed all standard sequential features of apoptosis including, destabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced production of reactive oxygen species and DNA ladder formation. Our in silico analysis further confirmed that indeed reserpine docks to the catalytic cleft of anti-apoptotic proteins substantiating our results.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that reserpine can be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

Keywords: Rauwolfia serpentina, caspase, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species, molecular docking, mitochondrial membrane.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2018
Page: [1313 - 1322]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1871520618666180209152215
Price: $58

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