Biomarkers of Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertension

Author(s): Costas Tsioufis*, Dimitris Konstantinidis, Ilias Nikolakopoulos, Evi Vemmou, Theodoros Kalos, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Nikolaos Vogiatzakis, Aris Ifantis, Konstantinou Konstantinou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitrios Tousoulis.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia globally and substantially increases the risk for thromboembolic disease. Albeit, 20% of all cases of AF remain undiagnosed. On the other hand, hypertension amplifies the risk for both AF occurrences through hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms and cerebrovascular ischemia. Under this prism, prompt diagnosis of undetected AF in hypertensive patients is of pivotal importance.

Method: We conducted a review of the literature for studies with biomarkers that could be used in AF diagnosis as well as in predicting the transition of paroxysmal AF to sustained AF, especially in hypertensive patients.

Results: Potential biomarkers for AF can be broadly categorized into electrophysiological, morphological and molecular markers that reflect the underlying mechanisms of adverse atrial remodeling. We focused on P-wave duration and dispersion as electrophysiological markers, and left atrial (LA) and LA appendage size, atrial fibrosis, left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic stiffness as structural biomarkers, respectively. The heterogeneous group of molecular biomarkers of AF encompasses products of the neurohormonal cascade, including NT-pro BNP, BNP, MR-pro ANP, polymorphisms of the ACE and convertases such as corin and furin. In addition, soluble biomarkers of inflammation (i.e. CRP, IL-6) and fibrosis (i.e. TGF-1 and matrix metalloproteinases) were assessed for predicting AF.

Conclusion: The reviewed individual biomarkers might be a valuable addition to current diagnostic tools but the ideal candidate is expected to combine multiple indices of atrial remodeling in order to effectively detect both AF and adverse characteristics of high risk patients with hypertension.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, hypertension, biomarkers, atrial remodeling, stroke, hypertensive patients.

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VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2019
Page: [888 - 897]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666171006155516
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