Therapeutic Suppression of Nonsense Mutation: An Emerging Target in Multiple Diseases and Thrombotic Disorders

Author(s): Md. Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan, Kah Keng Wong*, Teguh Haryo Sasongko*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 11 , 2017

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Abstract:

Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated nonfunctional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i.e. translational readthrough) regimens. In this review, we highlighted different treatment strategies of PTC targeting readthrough therapeutics including the use of aminoglycosides, ataluren (formerly known as PTC124), suppressor tRNAs, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, pseudouridylation and CRISPR/Cas9 system to treat PTC-mediated diseases. In addition, as thrombotic disorders are a group of disease with major burdens worldwide, 19 potential genes containing a total of 705 PTCs that cause 21 thrombotic disorders have been listed based on the data reanalysis from the ‘GeneCards® - Human Gene Database’ and ‘Human Gene Mutation Database’ (HGMD®). These PTC-containing genes can be potential targets amenable for different readthrough therapeutic strategies in the future.

Keywords: Nonsense mutation, premature termination codon, readthrough, nonsense suppression therapy, aminoglycosides, ataluren, CRISPR/Cas9, thrombotic disorders.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 11
Year: 2017
Page: [1598 - 1609]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666161122142950
Price: $58

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