Viruses lack the synthetic machinery, so they hijack the synthetic machinery of host cells to
produce proteins; and in this process trigger cancer. Since current therapies are ineffective in dealing
with virally induced cancers, a future goal could be to develop vaccines against these tumor viruses. Indeed, a recent
patent has demonstrated the utility of host p16 peptide fragments to vaccinate against various HPV induced tumors like
penile, anal, cervical, vulvar, vaginal and head and neck cancers. Another patent describes the use of host cell peptide
fragments (Rb, Mupp, DLG1 and AP) expressed on surface of virally infected host for vaccinating against the various
HPV induced cancers including head and neck cancers. A vaccine has been prepared from peptide antigens derived from
HPV L2, to vaccinate against diverse strains of HPV. An HPV assay (RNAscope®) has been recently developed utilizing
E6/E7 mRNA to detect high-risk HPV subtypes in head and neck cancer. Another patent deals with the use of two
RNAases (ranpirnase and 805 variant of ranpirnase) against HPV infections. We have undertaken this review to
summarize and delineate the role of viruses in carcinogenesis in the oral region.
Keywords: Cells, dysplasia, host, lymphocytes, neoplasia, vaccine.
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