Many potential drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases are unable to reach the brain in sufficient
enough concentrations to be therapeutic because of the blood brain barrier. On the other hand, direct delivery of drugs to
the brain provides the possibility of a greater therapeutic-toxic ratio than with systemic drug delivery. The use of intranasal
delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain provides a means of bypassing the blood brain barrier in a non-invasive
manner. In this respect, nanosized drug carriers were shown to enhance the delivery of drugs to CNS compared to equivalent
drug solution formulations. Neurological conditions that have been studied in animal models that could benefit from
nose-to-brain delivery of nanotherapeutics include pain, epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease and infectious diseases. The
delivery of drugs to the brain via the nose-to-brain route holds great promise, on the basis of preclinical research by means
of drug delivery systems such as polymeric nanoparticles and clinical data related to intranasal delivery to CNS of large
molecular weight biologics administered in solution, but safety issues about toxicity on nasal mucosa, Np transport into
the brain, delivery only to specific brain regions and variability in the adsorbed dose still represent research topics that
need to be considered, with a view of clinical translation of these delivery systems.
Keywords: Blood brain barrier (BBB), nanomedicine, nanoparticles, neurological disorders, nose-to-brain, olfactory nerve.
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