Oxidative Stress in the Hypothalamus: the Importance of Calcium Signaling and Mitochondrial ROS in Body Weight Regulation

Author(s): Erika Gyengesi , George Paxinos , Zane B. Andrews .

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 10 , Issue 4 , 2012

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Abstract:

A considerable amount of evidence shows that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mammalian brain are directly responsible for cell and tissue function and dysfunction. Excessive reactive oxygen species contribute to various conditions including inflammation, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation, and mental disorders such as depression. Increased intracellular calcium levels have toxic roles leading to cell death. However, the exact connection between reactive oxygen production and high calcium stress is not yet fully understood. In this review, we focus on the role of reactive oxygen species and calcium stress in hypothalamic arcuate neurons controlling feeding. We revisit the role of NPY and POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis, and consider how ROS and intracellular calcium levels affect these neurons. These novel insights give a new direction to research on hypothalamic mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis and may offer novel treatment strategies for obesity and type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, NPY, AgRP, POMC, Ghrelin, Leptin, Mitochondrial respiration, Hypothalamic appetite control

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Article Details

VOLUME: 10
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2012
Page: [344 - 353]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X11209040344
Price: $58

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