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Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders)
ISSN (Print): 1871-5265
ISSN (Online): 2212-3989
VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 5
DOI: 10.2174/187152612804142242









Lessons from Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Chromatin Remodeling by Bacterial Effectors

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Author(s): Kristen E. Rennoll-Bankert and J. Stephen Dumler
Pages 380-387 (8)
Abstract:
Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of several key phagocyte oxidase genes. The A. phagocytophilum protein AnkA localizes to the myeloid cell nucleus where it binds AT-rich regions in the CYBB promoter and decreases its transcription. AT-rich regions of DNA are characteristic of matrix attachment regions (MARs) which are critical for chromatin structure and transcription. MAR-binding proteins, such as SATB1, interact with histone modifying enzymes resulting in altered gene expression. With A. phagocytophilum infection, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression is increased and histone H3 acetylation is decreased at the CYBB promoter, suggesting a role for AnkA in altering host epigenetics and modulating gene transcription, at this, and perhaps other loci. This review will focus on how bacterial pathogens alter host epigenetics, by specifically examining A. phagocytophilum AnkA cis-regulation of CYBB transcription and epigenetic changes associated with infection.
Keywords:
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, AnkA, CYBB, epigenetics, histone modifications, and NADPH oxidase, Bacterial pathogens, chromatin remodeling, bacterial survival, chromatin structure, matrix attachment regions (MARs), chromatin structure, bacterial pathogens, Intracellular bacterial pathogens, host cells
Affiliation:
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, 720 Rutland Avenue, Ross 624, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.