Synthesis of New Cyclic Imides Derived From Safrole, Structure- and Ligand-based Approaches to Evaluate Potential New Multitarget Agents Against Species of Leishmania
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that does not have adequate treatment. It affects around 12 million people around the world and is classified as a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. In this context, strategies to obtain new, more active and less toxic drugs should be stimulated. Sources of natural products combined with synthetic and chemoinformatic methodologies are strategies used to obtain molecules that are most likely to be effective against a specific disease. Computer-Aided Drug Design has become an indispensable tool in the pharmaceutical industry and academia in recent years and has been employed during various stages of the drug design process.
Objectives: Perform structure- and ligand-based approaches, synthesize and characterize some compounds with materials available in our labora-tories to verify the method’s efficiency.
Methods: We created a database with 33 cyclic imides and evaluated their potential anti-Leishmanial activity (L. amazonensis and L. donovani) through ligand- and structure-based virtual screening. A diverse set selected from ChEMBL databanks of 818 structures (L. donovani) and 722 structures (L. amazonensis), with tested anti-Leishmanial activity against promastigotes forms, were classified according to pIC50 values to generate and validate a Ran-dom Forest model that shows higher statistical indices values. The structures of four different L. donovani enzymes were downloaded from the Protein Data Bank and the imides’ structures were submitted to molecular docking. So, with available materials and technical feasibility of our laboratories, we have synthesized and characterized seven compounds through cy-clization reactions between isosafrole and maleic anhydride followed by treatment with different amines to obtain new cyclic imides to evaluate their anti-Leishmanial activity.
Results: In silico study allowed us to suggest that the cyclic imides 516, 25, 31, 24, 32, 2, 3, 22 can be tested as potential multitarget molecules for leishmanial treatment, presenting activity probability against four strategic enzymes (Topoisomerase I, N-myristoyltransferase, cyclophilin and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase). The com-pounds synthesized and tested presented pIC50 values less than 4.7 for Leishmania amazonensis.
Conclusion: After com-bined approach evaluation, we have synthesized and characterized seven cyclic imides by IR, 1H NMR, 13C-APT NMR, COSY, HETCOR and HMBC. The compounds tested against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis presented pIC50 val-ues less than 4.7, showing that our method was efficient in predicting true negative molecules.
Journal Title: Medicinal Chemistry