Helminthicidal and Larvicidal Potentials of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Medicinal Plant Momordica charantia
Background: The drug formulations used to control mosquito vectors and helminth infections
have resulted in the development of resistance, and negative impact on non-target organisms
Objective: Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) using aqueous fruit peel extract
of M. charantia, applications of P-AgNPs for helminthicidal activity against Indian earthworms
(P. posthuma) and larvicidal activity against larvae of mosquito A. albopictus and A. aegypti.
Methods: Aqueous fruit peel extract of Momordica charantia was used to reduce silver ions to silver
nanoparticles (P-AgNPs). UV-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterize synthesized
P-AgNPs. The motility and survival rate of the worms were recorded for the helminthicidal activity.
Percent mortality of larvae of A. albopictus and A. aegypti was recorded for larvicidal activity.
Results: The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of P-AgNPs showed a strong surface plasmon absorption
band in the visible region with a maximum absorption at 445 nm indicating the synthesis of
silver nanoparticles by the addition of aqueous fruit peel extract. The XRD spectrum of P-AgNPs
showed Bragg's reflection peaks 2θ value characteristics for the Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) structure
of silver. The sharp absorption peak in FTIR at 1659 cm-1 assigned to C=O stretching vibration
in carbonyl compounds represents terpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols in the corona of PAgNPs;
a 2 mg/mL of P-AgNPs. The concentration aqueous extract and P-AgNPs showed complete
death of worms (the morphological alteration/coiling of body). A 20 ppm concentration of PAgNPs
showed 85% mortality in larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. P-AgNPs were nontoxic
at low concentrations.
Conclusion: The aqueous extracts played a dual role as reducing and capping agent during the
biosynthesis of AgNPs as per FTIR and XRD results. The surface reactivity facilitated by biomolecule
corona attached to silver nanoparticles can further help to functionalize AgNPs in various
pharmaceuticals, biomedicals, and environmental applications.Journal Title: