Pediatric Anesthesia: A Guide for the Non-Pediatric Anesthesia Provider Part II

Anesthesia for Pediatric Patients with Common Comorbidities Part III

Author(s): Pravin Taneja and '>Nathalie Peiris *

Pp: 59-110 (52)

Doi: 10.2174/9789815036213122010006

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


There have been dramatic improvements in the survival of neonates and children with many diseases and disorders due to advancements in medicine over the past several decades. These advances are attributed to the better understanding of these disease processes, the advent of multidrug combinations, molecularly targeted therapies, critical care and various surgical interventions. In the wake of this rapidly developing wide range of treatment protocols, the anesthesiologist needs to have a clear understanding of these disorders and their comorbidities, and stay abreast of the various treatment modalities, including their safety and toxicity profiles. This review attempts to emphasize some of the clinical conditions unique to these patients and special considerations for the conduct of anesthesia in this population. Some of the disease processes and comorbidities discussed here include anesthetic considerations for ex-premature infants, diabetes mellitus, obesity, childhood cancer, and children with congenital heart disease who present for non-cardiac surgery. The objective of this discussion is to provide an updated and comprehensive review of current perioperative anesthetic management of pediatric patients with these conditions. We also delineate the effects of anesthesia during the perioperative course, including major metabolic changes that may result in increased morbidity. We provide guidelines for any anesthesia provider involved in the care of these vulnerable patients. Special considerations need to be taken to promote the physical and mental wellbeing of these children and their families. Collaborative coordination with all providers involved in care is essential to provide safe and effective anesthesia to this subset of patients.

Keywords: Apnea, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Cardiotoxicity, Chemotherapy, Congenital heart defects, Continuous glucose monitoring, Diabetes type 1, Diabetes type 2, Ex-premature, Fontan, Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, Insulin, Insulin pumps, Left-to-right, Leukemias, Low birth weight, Lymphomas, Media-stinal mass, Obesity, Prematurity, Pulmonary vascular resistance, Respiratory distress syndrome, Right-to-left, Systemic vascular resistance

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