Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by the insufficient production of insulin and/or the development of resistance to insulin. The long-term management of T2DM with conventional oral hypoglycaemic drugs is a challenge as these drugs may worsen certain underlying comorbidities and complications, such as chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Besides, because of the development of resistance to those drugs, it is difficult to control hyperglycemia for long term treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This drawback of conventional medicines necessitates phytotherapy, herbal medicines, functional foods, nutraceuticals, and other forms of alternative medicines or the invention of new medicines for the effective and long term treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus avoiding the major adverse-effects or minimising them. Plant-derived bioactive compounds are a great resource for the discovery of new medicines. Besides, phytomedicines in the forms of extracts, isolated compounds, combined herbal preparations or other forms can be used for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This chapter contains updated panorama based on the evidences from clinical study reports on different forms of phytotherapy, including plant extracts, its fractions, isolated bioactive compounds, functional foods, nutraceuticals, herbal medicines formulations and other forms of plant-derived phytotherapy reported for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The findings from clinical study reports were discussed with proper citations as well as presented in summarized form in a table. A total of 52 different types and forms of prospective phytomedicines, bioactive compounds, or formulation or extracts or fractions or decoctions or functional foods formulations having clinical study reports associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus were presented in this chapter. The molecular mechanisms involved along with the primary and secondary outcomes with phytotherapy on type 2 diabetes patients were also presented. Multiple clinical studies demonstrated very prospective and potential antidiabetic activities of Berberine, Bitter gourd, Cinnamon, Curcumin, Dia-BestTM, Fenugreek, Gegen Qinlian decoction, GlucoSupreme herbal, Gymnema sylvestre, Magnesium, Nigella sativa, Resveratrol, Tibetan medicine herb combination, TCM multiple herbal combination, Xiaoke pill, and vitamin C. Hence, at least, these phytoremedies are recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus which may have additional benefits in diabetes management compared to conventional Allopathic medicines considering the long-term safety and effectivity of the products. The updated clinical study reports on phytotherapy presented in this chapter will be helpful for the medical, biological and pharmaceutical researchers and complementary and alternative medicine users to use these plants extracts, its fractions, isolated biomolecules, herbal preparations, functional foods, nutraceuticals and other forms of phytomedicines for the prevention and treatment of diseases as well as for the discovery of modern medicines.
Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Clinical studies, Complementay and alternative medicine, Herbal medicine, Phytomedicine, Phytotherapy, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.