Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and is one of the major leading causes of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organisation, the burden of diabetes has increased almost two-fold in 2014 compared to 1980 in lowand middle-income countries. Uncontrolled levels of glucose in the blood are because of improper insulin secretion or insulin action which is associated with abnormalities in metabolic, genetic and hemodynamic systems. The term cardiovascular disease is used for all types of disorders associated with heart and blood vessels. Many researchers are trying to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Herbal medicines are one of the oldest and alternative therapeutic treatment options for diabetes and hypertension. Around 1200 traditional medicinal plants have been used for their beneficial effects on diabetes. These plants are rich in alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids. Terpenoids are a diverse category of cyclic compounds obtained naturally from the isoprene unit. Among all reported natural products, about 60% of compounds are from terpenoids. More than 40,000 terpenoids are isolated from secondary metabolites of plants. Most of them are of plant dietary origin. Plants produce terpenoids as a secondary metabolite. More than hundreds of new terpenoid structures are reported every year for their activity in many disease conditions like cancer, malaria, inflammation, and a variety of infectious diseases. Various reports have shown that terpenoids are beneficial in the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The chapter is focused on terpenoids and their role in the treatment and management of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Arjunolic acid, Cardiovascular diseases, Corosolic acid, Diabetes, Glycyrrhetinic acid, Ginsenoside, Lupeol, Limonene, Pomolic acid, Terpenoids, Ursolic acid.