Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has become a major and serious health problem worldwide. To overcome this lifestyle disease, natural products can be explored systematically. These natural products act on various targets and show their effect in diabetic conditions. Out of this, GLP-1 Receptor is one of the promising targets. Cells in the small intestine secrete Incretin hormones upon nutrient ingestion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a primary incretin hormone in metabolism that has a potent antihyperglycemic effect. Insulin will release, in the presence of hyperglycemia, GLP-1 stimulates the pancreas to release insulin, stops glucagon release, gastric emptying slows down and increases satiety by acting on the hypothalamus. Storage of GLP-1 is mainly in secretory granules of L cells, in small intestinal distal portion and colon. When the cells are activated, this peptide is released into the main bloodstream.GLP-1 secreted mainly upon the ingestion of oral glucose or the ingestion of a mixed meal. Other factors like neurotransmitters and intestinal hormones also affect GLP-1 secretion from the intestine. Considering the above-mentioned parameters, regulation and control of GLP-1 are necessary as GLP-1 secretion is hampered in T2DM.
The present chapter focuses on scientific information about natural products specifically acting as GLP- 1 Receptor Agonist (GLP-1 RA).
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Herbal Medicine, Insulinotropic, Natural Products.