Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Insulin is an anabolic peptide hormone that possesses pleiotropic activity. It can hinder with multiple physiological processes by either upregulating or downregulating various metabolic intracellular pathways. The complex insulin signaling system makes it vital in a variety of biological responses. This chapter describes the biochemistry of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the features underlying its pathophysiology.
Keywords: Diabetes, Glucose Uptake, Insulin, Insulin Receptor, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Disorder.