The burden of breast cancer incidence and related mortality is a major health problem worldwide. In the last few years, the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer have grown very rapidly in many developing countries and also slowly in developed nations. According to GLOBOCAN 2018 status report, the global cancer burden is estimated to have risen to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018. The etiology of breast cancer depends upon several factors and includes age, genetic, environmental, radiation, breastfeeding, diet, and lifestyle factors, etc. The reasons behind the high breast cancer-related mortality are due to the lack of basic knowledge and awareness about breast cancer, less efficient diagnosis, late screening, poor health facilities, and limited access to treatment in developing countries. In this chapter, we summarize key studies on breast cancer epidemiology, types of breast cancer, risk factors, diagnosis, screening tools, predictive marker, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, and preventative methods on breast cancer over the past years. These integrated findings may help protect and fight against breast cancer.