Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers include cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, vaginal and anal cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers. Thus, effective vaccination against HPV infection is recommended to decrease their incidence and progression in the world. The FDA of the USA has approved two preventive vaccines to inhibit the spread of HPV. However, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections, so therapeutic vaccines are being developed to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. HPV vaccination might be useful not only for prevention of cervical cancer, but also for the reduction of other related cancers. Herein, HPV-related cancers will be explained to consider their preventive and therapeutic pathways in future.