This chapter focuses on the conducting and dielectric materials and their properties under static fields condition. Conducting materials conduct electric current efficiently, while dielectrics possess high insulation capabilities, in addition to its ability to store electric energy. Conducting and dielectric materials are essential in all electrical and electronics systems and equipment. The ability of the material to conduct the electric current is called the conductivity of the material. On the other hand, the interaction between a dielectric material and electrostatic field leads to the formation of dipole moments in the atoms of the material, which is known as polarization. This polarization ability of a material is quantitatively described by a constant known as the permittivity of the material. The permittivity of a dielectric material relative to that of free space is known as the relative permittivity or dielectric constant of the material. Both the conductivity and dielectric constant depend on the intrinsic properties of the material. This chapter presents a detailed derivation for the conductivity and permittivity under static field conduction. In addition to the properties of the conducting and dielectric materials, the chapter discusses the concept of conservation of charge and relaxation time; the boundary conditions between different media; the resistance; the capacitance; the stored energy in a capacitor. The topics of the chapter are supported by numerous illustrative examples and figures in addition to solved problems and homework problems at the end of the chapter.
Keywords: Capacitance, conduction current, conductivity, conductor, convection current, dielectric breakdown, dielectric constant, dielectric strength, dielectric, displacement current, electric flux, mobility, perfect electric conductor, polarization, relaxation time, resistance, resistivity.