This chapter includes general aspects regarding the mechanisms of radiation-induced lesions and specific organ-related effects of radiotherapy, from the cardiovascular system to bone marrow. For oncologists, understanding the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis and knowing the estimated time taken for postradiotherapy occurrence of metachronous tumors is mandatory for proper patient follow-up. We here analyze all lesions of the skin and internal organs, leaving aside tumors for this chapter. The acute and chronic effects of radiotherapy are presented in detail, and the grading system of oral mucositis is also outlined.
Keywords: Actinic enterocolitis, Bone marrow, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Dermatitis, Endarteritis obliterans, EPPER-syndrome, Iatrogenic, Malignancy, Mucositis, Pneumonitis, Radiation enteropathy, Radiodermatitis, Radiotherapy, Reticuloid syndrome, Sweet’s syndrome, Vasculitis.