A wide range of experimental techniques has been developed and applied for investigating matter at high resolution. Scattering experiments are considered as powerful tools for structure elucidation of liquids including normal water and supercooled water. Employing techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), one can record the temperature of phase changes, the glass transition temperature. Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) spectral analysis suggests distinct relaxation behaviour of diffusive motions of water molecules. Nuclear Magnetic Spectroscopy (NMR) is very useful tool in elucidating molecular structures of systems including liquids and aqueous solutions. By Compton Scattering and NMR techniques, estimation of average number of hydrogen bonds has been achieved to a considerable level of accuracy. Extensive studies have been made on water clusters using a sophisticated spectroscopic technique namely Far Infra−Red Vibration−Rotation−Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy. Optical Kerr Spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the relaxation process at femtosecond and picosecond levels. Properties such as compressibility and diffusion coefficient have been experimentally measured by simple capillary tube techniques. Electron microscopic techniques have become invaluable tools to obtain high resolution of molecular structure materials. Electron microscopic techniques equipped with better resolution can yield further information regarding the microstructure of materials including liquids.
Keywords: Bragg, Compton scattering, Density, Diffraction, DSC, Infra−Red, NMR, QENS, SANS, SEM, Spectroscope, TEM, X−ray, Zeeman.