Background: Deteriorations in tissues and decline in organ functions, due to chronic diseases or with advancing age or sometimes due to infections or injuries, can severely compromise the quality of life of an individual. Regenerative medicine, a field of medical research focuses on replacing non-functional or dead cells or repairing or regenerating tissues and organs to restore normal functions of an impaired organ. Approaches used in regenerative therapy for achieving the objective employ a number of means which include soluble biomolecules, stem cell transplants, tissue engineering, gene therapy and reprogramming of cells according to target tissue types. Stem cells transplant and tissue regeneration methods for treating various diseases have rapidly grown in usage over the past decades or so. There are different types of stem cells such as mesenchymal, hematopoietic, embryonic, mammary, intestinal, endothelial, neural, olfactory, neural crest, testicular and induced pluripotent stem cells.
Methods: This review covers the recent advances in tissue regeneration and highlights the application of stem cell transplants in treating many life-threatening diseases or in improving quality of life.
Results: Remarkable progress in stem cell research has established that the cell-based therapy could be an option for treating diseases which could not be cured by conventional medical means till recent. Stem cells play major roles in regenerative medicine with its exceptional characteristics of self-renewal capacity and potential to differentiate into almost all types of cells of a body.
Conclusion: Vast number of reports on preclinical and clinical application of stem cells revealed its vital role in disease management and many pharmacological industries around the globe working to achieve effective stem cell based products.
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