Background: Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens), commonly known as Mediterranean cypress is native to the eastern Mediterranean region, North America and subtropical Asia at higher altitudes. The crude, semi-purified and purified extracts of C. sempervirens have long been recognized for its pharmacological activities as evidenced by its extensive use by indigenous cultures in herbal medicines, tonics and infusion. Pharmacological properties displayed the prodigious biological activities that could be further explored for development of new herbal formulations or therapeutic agents.
Aims: This review presents a critical analysis of the current state of knowledge about the ethno medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of C. sempervirens L and its future applications.
Materials and Methods: Literature related to C. sempervirens and its synonyms were searched on the available online literature databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, SciFinder, Scopus, Springer, ScienceDirect, Wiley, ACS, Scielo and Web of Science, thesis, dissertations, books, reports, local herbal encyclopedias and other relevant websites.
Results: A review of literature showed that decoction of cones and young branches of C. sempervirens gave astonishing effect in the treatment of hemorrhoids and to treat excessive sweating in the feet. Enormous pharmacological properties have been found including antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, wound-healing, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer, neurobiological, antidiabetic, and antiosteoporotic. Approximately 109 phytochemical constituents have been searched out as isolates from various parts of this plant comprising mostly diterpenoids and biflavonoids.
Conclusion: Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have provided support for the traditional uses of C. sempervirens but further research work is required towards isolating more active constituents and for validating its clinical utilization in the herbal formulations for humans as well as investigating any potential toxicity for future clinical studies.
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