Background: Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused mainly by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounts for the highest number of deaths worldwide. Despite curing millions, the currently used drug regimens are bounded by various limitations such as long course of therapy, emergence of resistance and permanent tissue damage. The treatment of multidrug-resistant and extremely drugresistant tuberculosis is a challenging task due to its reliance on second-line drugs which are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Therefore, the major challenges in the upcoming years are to overcome the emergence of increased number of multidrug-resistant as well as extensively drug-resistant strains and the ineptness of the current treatment regimens against latent tuberculosis. Bedaquiline and Delamanid are the only new anti-TB drugs that have been currently approved since more than 40 years after discovery of isoniazid. Bedaquiline is the first diarylquinoline derivative that has showed resilient culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials.
Methods: Extensive literature search on the topic was undergone using a focused question.
Results: Fifty-eight research articles from journals of repute are included in the review. The vaccine and peptide-based conjugates are recent developments against Mycobacterium for selective and specific targeting to the desired tissues.
Conclusion: In this review, we have focused on the different classes of chemical as well as plant based compounds as potent antitubercular agents against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. This review falls light on the importance of research been undergoing in different parts of the world to combat the ever increasing problem of mycobacterial resistance and the various treatment options available for the treatment of tuberculosis.
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